ruth chapter 4 explained

As the evidence shows, levirate marriage and the ceremony regarding the transferal of property are not equivalent, or even harmonious, rites. Of course, this is a generalization, but in my experience there is a statistically high number of Saints who make this connection, even when it is not intended by the passage. Verses 1-6 Boaz arranged a public meeting with this man. John Piper Sep 4, 2008 1 Share God is most glorified in us when we are most satisfied in him Learn more about Desiring God Desiring God. He noted that just as a shoe protects the wearer and shields him or her from dirt—“by taking it upon itself”—so also does Jesus shield those who seek to be his bride from the spiritual dirt we call sin. Chapter. . Scripture: Ruth 4. Uncover his feet, and lie down: At the appropriate time, Naomi instructs Ruth to go in, uncover his feet, and lie down. [10] Thus, again, something other than the standard levirate marriage ceremony is being depicted here. [31], Because the shoe was a natural symbol of possession, the removal of the same implied divestment. In the end, however, there are a number of reasons why Ruth chapter 4 is likely not intended to be a representation of a traditional levirate marriage ritual. We continue in our Ruth 4 commentary… Ruth 4 Commentary: Verses 1 – 2. [50] For example, when Adam and Eve willingly partook of the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, they divested themselves of Eden (with its ease and luxury) in hopes of gaining the celestial kingdom. [42] See Hamlin, Theological Commentary, 58. All things — That is, in all alienation of lands. [45] Regardless, clearly the meaning of the rite described in the book of Ruth is different from that of levirate marriage, and it appears that there are limited connections that can be made between these two rites. 2 Boaz took ten of the elders(D)of the town and said, “Sit here,” and they did so. It was just as concerned, if not more so, with the perpetuation of family property within the immediate family. to 600 C.E. As another example of the misapplication of the “ceremony of the shoe,” some see connections between this rite and the selling of slaves in Hebrew Bible times. It’s just that in many ways Ruth … Boaz, however, counters that the Moabite Ruth is part of Elimelech’s property. James Hastings, rev. People would know of the agreement reached.” Cundall and Morris, Tyndale Commentaries, 306. The purpose of the ceremony was to give legal status to a transfer of responsibility involving ‘redeeming and exchanging’ (4:7).” Hamlin, Theological Commentary, 57–58. We now turn our attention to the specifics of how this ancient rite of property transferal specifically relates to God’s modern covenant people and their worship patterns today. My right — Which I freely resign to thee. This perspective is unique to Latter-day Saints. . Since our Ruth study is only 8 lessons long (counting today’s) I think if you want to go over it again it’s not too long of a task. For no one has the right to do it except you, and I … Did build — That is, increase the posterity. He wrote: “It appears to have been a custom among the Chinese for an official, on relinquishing his duties, to suspend his shoes in a conspicuous place.” W. C. Hazlitt, Dictionary of Faiths and Folklore: Beliefs, Superstitions and Popular Customs (London: Bracken Books, 1995), s.v. However, the connotation or implications in temple worship is that we are surrendering more than just property (that is, the premortal abode), but also our personal wills. A “kinsman-redeemer” purchases a relative from slavery (actual or potential); a “kinsman-avenger” provides justice on behalf of a relative. Yābām can mean either “husband’s brother,” or to perform the duty of such to “a brother’s widow.” [12] However, the book of Ruth does not use yābām but rather the term gā’ēl, which indicates a redeemer (particularly of consecrated things or people) or an avenger and signifies that these roles are performed based on the authority of kinship. [20] For example, they can represent one’s preparation for a task (see Exodus 12:11; Ephesians 6:15; Matthew 10:10; Mark 6:9). 4. Thus, they were not slaves in the traditional sense of the word—and therefore the ceremony of the shoe would have had no place in this context. This was the method of legalizing transactions in Israel.” Leslie F. Church, ed., The NIV Matthew Henry Commentary in One Volume (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1992), O.T. So Boaz said, “Come aside, friend, sit down here.” So he came aside and sat down. And ten was the usual number among the Jews, in causes of matrimony and divorce, and translation of inheritances; who were both judges of the causes, and witnesses of the fact. In what sense are they divesting themselves of something when they perform such an act? John Piper Jul 22, 1984 574 Shares Conference Message. . . Thus, near the end of the Deuteronomic passage dealing with this law comes an explanation of what a woman should do if her surviving brother-in-law (or levir) refuses to marry her. . This was a testimony — This was admitted for sufficient evidence in all such cases. [5] See, for example, Arthur E. Cundall and Leon Morris, Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries: Judges and Ruth (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1968), 306–7; Edward F. Campbell Jr., Ruth: A New Translation with Introduction, Notes, and Commentary, Anchor Bible 7 (New York: Doubleday, 1975), 161; Clarke, Clarke’s Commentary, 2:201; Kalmin, “Levirate Law,” 4:296. By removing them, we symbolically leave the world outside the Lord’s sanctuary.” [48]. Now this was the manner in Israel, &c. — We do not know that there was any law of God enjoining any such ceremony as is here mentioned; but only it was a long-established custom to act thus in transferring one man’s right in any land to another. (1-2) Boaz meets the nearer kinsman at the city gates. Elsewhere we read: “A man renouncing property rites removed a sandal . . Commentary on Ruth 1:1—4:22 View Bible Text A story of human love reflecting and enacting divine love, the book of Ruth is a rich text for a sermon series, particularly in August days when farm fields flourish with the promise of an abundant harvest. [55] Matthew Henry drew a similar analogy. Ruth chapter 1 KJV (King James Version) 1 Now it came to pass in the days when the judges ruled, that there was a famine in the land. [57] This has relevance in the story of Ruth, both because Ruth and Boaz seem to typify the Church and her Bridegroom, and also because of Boaz’s role to redeem Ruth via shouldering her burden and taking upon himself her trial—just as Christ willingly shoulders our burdens and takes upon himself our trials. Speiser rejects a literal reading of the verse, insisting instead that some connection to the ceremony of the shoe is intended by the text. turn aside, sit down here. 185 Heber J. Shoes have played an important role in establishing sacred space and sacred rites from the beginning of time. Ruth goes to Boaz on the threshing floor and says in effect, "I want you to spread your wing over me as my husband." Speiser adds this: “Shoes . Raymond E. Brown, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990), 557. rev. Just as the land and the bride are connected in the story, so also do the promised land (or celestial kingdom) and membership in the Church (which is the “bride of Christ”—see, for example, Ephesians 5:22–33) go together. Ruth chapter 4 is all about redemption, which, according to the New Bible Dictionary means 'deliverance from some evil by payment of a price.'. . There, Naomi returned to Bethlehem accompanied by Ruth, refusing to be called “Naomi” (Pleasant), but insisting on being called “Mara” (Bitter) instead. Chapter 4. Thus commentators will sometimes see in certain cultic practices or biblical passages what appear to be parallels between those rites or verses and the law of levirate marriage. [19] Whereas exegesis is the practice of drawing out of a text the original author’s intended meaning, eisegesis is reading into a text with preconceived notions held by the reader. Finally, one text notes: “In biblical law the levir [or brother-in-law] does not require a formal marriage (kiddushin) to the yevamah [or sister-in-law] since the personal status tie, the zikkah between them, arises automatically upon the death of the husband of the yevamah.” [16] Elsewhere we read: “If a man died childless, his widow was not free to remarry but was considered to be already betrothed to his brother.” [17] Thus, whereas levirate marriage did not require—nor allow—a marriage contract to be initiated (as the couple were considered already married), in the book of Ruth a formal marriage is expected and, in the end, performed. William Whiston (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel, 1981), 121. (Gen. E. A. Speiser, however, noted: “The ordinary interpretation of this saying that the poor could be enslaved for so trifling a thing as a pair of shoes is unconvincing . Thus, like Adam and Eve—or Ruth’s unnamed kinsman-redeemer—we once willingly covenanted to relinquish our right to remain in the premortal existence because we knew something better awaited us, namely, the celestial kingdom. Lesson 8 - Chapter 4 (End of Book) We have great deal to cover today, so I’m not going to review our previous lesson. We do not know this other man’s name.Boaz said that Naomi had land to sell. BOAZ CALLS INTO JUDGMENT THE NEXT KINSMAN. No preliminaries were necessary in summoning one before the public assemblage; no … In modern as well as ancient cultures, shoes have served not only a practical function but also an aesthetic one. The man was glad to buy the land, so that it would still belongto Elimelech’s relatives. Thus, the rites depicted in Deuteronomy 25 and Ruth 4 appear to be different—one having to do with the loss of a family member and the other to do with something that is potentially different altogether. CHAPTER 4. They simply declare Ruth 4:17-22, more than 25% of the whole chapter, to be an interpolation The notion that the Book of Ruth was written in post-exilic times is unacceptable for the simple reason that at such a period in Israel's history, there could have been neither any interest in the production of such a book nor any motive whatever for terminating the genealogy with David. Daniel L. Belnap (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center; Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2013), 133–150. Ephratah and Bethlehem — Two names of one and the same place. בוַיִּקַּ֞ח … The ceremony of the shoe highlights that desire and our commitment to connect ourselves to the Bridegroom, that redemption might take place and an inheritance might be received. . Indeed, an entirely different connotation is implied. Ruth was getting good advise from her … 293. Hence, our forfeiture of the “first estate” is somewhat tentative. In what … See Hamlin, Theological Commentary, 58. Significantly, as in the story of Ruth, we must seek out a covenant relationship with Christ (our Bridegroom) and, metaphorically speaking, offer him our shoe as a representation that we have given up all we have because we trust in him and in all that he has promised to do for us and give to us. In return Christ is said to offer us the celestial kingdom and to make us as he is. Then the biblical tradition took a further step. In other words, I’ll remind you that in the introduction to the book of Ruth I explained that while Ruth was the central female character and the book’s namesake, in fact the story is about coming to a resolution to solve Na’omi’s problem. Andthey decided what was fair there. [59] Mace, Hebrew Marriage, 104. Thus, the rite of clothing and that of the removal of shoes are separate, even though they are once placed side by side in the temple. Ten men — To be witnesses: for though two or three witnesses were sufficient, yet in weightier matters they used more. [33] One commentator on the rite noted: “To confirm whatever was agreed upon, one man drew off . Took Ruth — Which he might do, though she was a Moabite, because the prohibition against marrying such, is to be restrained to those who continue Heathens; whereas Ruth was a sincere proselyte and convert to the God of Israel. A narrative parenthesis explains the significance of what happens next. . This was symbolical, and a significant and convenient ceremony, as if he said, take this shoe wherewith I used to go and tread upon my land, and in that shoe do thou enter upon it, and take possession of it. From the gate — That is, from among the inhabitants dwelling within the gate of this city, which was Bethlehem-judah. “Put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground” (Exodus 3:5). The connections sometimes made between the ceremony of the shoe and the removal of footwear when entering sacred space are not so tenuous, however. The former is appropriate methodology, whereas the latter does violence to the text and is often pejoratively referred to as “proof-texting.”. Mar — Either because having no children of his own, he might have one, and but one son by Ruth, who, though he should carry away his inheritance, yet would not bear his name, but the name of Ruth's husband; and so by preserving another man's name, he should lose his own. How had things changed for her? See also David Allan Hubbard, Tyndale Old Testament Commentary: Joel and Amos (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1989), 220–21. However, the removal of one’s shoes as a ritual act or gesture is not always about sacred soil. . I express gratitude to Dr. RoseAnn Benson for bringing this source to my attention. We know that the practice of levirate marriage was known in biblical times at least as early as the writing of the Pentateuch and remained culturally acceptable perhaps as late as the penning of the gospel of Luke (see Luke 20:28). Typologist J. C. Cooper noted that shoes represent control. . And she said to her, 'All that you say I will do.' [47] J. C. Cooper, An Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Traditional Symbols (London: Thames and Hudson, 1995), 152. Boaz had to offer the land to him firstbecause he was a closer relative of Elimelech. . The kinsman-redeemer understands the purchase of Elimelech’s land to entail risk to his own inheritance and so declines the opportunity to purchase it. b. [1] As with many Hebrew laws, levirate marriage had accompanying rituals requisite for its formal and legal enactment. [11] And all the people that were in the gate, and the elders, said, We are witnesses. She sought to justify this by claiming that God had dealt harshly with her. Unfortunately there is some confusion surrounding this rite; namely, it is common for scholars to make blanket assumptions about this law and its ritual enactment in scripture and history—perhaps in part because what does appear in scripture regarding levirate marriage is scant at best. [9] See Mace, Hebrew Marriage, 100; George Arthur Buttrick, ed., The Interpreter’s Bible (New York: Abingdon, 1953), 2:848. ed. Ten men— To be witnesses: for though two or three witnesses were sufficient, yet in weightier matters they used more. They met at the city’s gate. Admittedly, on a superficial level there appear to be significant correlations between the passages in Ruth 4 and those in Deuteronomy 25. [36] According to Jewish legend, the unnamed kinsman-redeemer was Boaz’s older brother, Tob. xvi, etc. [24] Records from Nuzi, an ancient Mesopotamian city, attest to a ceremony of property transfer or land ownership wherein the person selling (or transferring property) must remove his shoes as evidence that the transfer had indeed taken place. This was not how this gesture was understood in that day. Such actions do not constitute the ceremony of the shoe, but they do prepare us to divest ourselves of the world in the ordinances of the house of the Lord—and they do suggest a subtle connection between the ceremony and our actions of preparation. Now Boaz went up to the gate and sat down there; and behold, the close relative of whom Boaz had spoken came by. Grant Building All Rights Reserved. And a certain man of Bethlehemjudah went to sojourn in the country of Moab, he, and his wife, and his two sons. (13-22) Commentary on Ruth 4:1-8 (Read Ruth 4:1-8) This matter depended on the laws given by Moses about inheritances, and doubtless the whole was settled in the regular and legal manner. Provo, UT 84602 unto whom he said, Ho, such a one! [6] First of all, unlike the widowed woman in Exodus chapter 25, Ruth does not spit in the face of the man who refuses to marry her, which many sources indicate is a requisite part of the ceremony of levirate marriage. Chapter 4 is also a stark contrast to what we read in chapter 1. Thus, again, the connection between levirate marriage and the rite depicted in Ruth 4 seems stretched. It is quite another thing to realize that the land will ultimately belong to the son whom one will raise up for the deceased. This guy never has his name given. 801-422-6975, Alonzo L. Gaskill, “The 'Ceremony of the Shoe': A Ritual of God's Ancient Covenant People,” in. . We see examples in scripture of individuals removing their shoes upon entering sacred space, Moses (see Exodus 3:5) and Joshua (see Joshua 5:15) being the chief among them. [10] Moreover Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of Mahlon, have I purchased to be my wife, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance, that the name of the dead be not cut off from among his brethren, and from the gate of his place: ye are witnesses this day. . Elsewhere we read of a connection between the ceremony of the shoe and the removal of one’s footwear when entering sacred ground; anciently, “washing was a symbol of consecration, and it was necessary for the worshiper to wash his garments previous to his taking part in any special sacred function (Lev. Thus he that forsakes all for Christ, shall find more than all with him. Because of biblical evidence and extracanonical support, scholars believe that this rite was at one time very widespread in the ancient Near East. Of course, from a gospel perspective, the forfeiture of the premortal world (or “first estate”) is permanent only in that we will never again be in that same state (as spirits abiding in the presence of the Father). [35] One commentary on this passage states: When the unnamed [36] kinsman-redeemer (gō’ēl) arrives the next morning at the city gate, Boaz is waiting for him. . . The answer to that question seems obvious. This too is contrary to the law surrounding levirate marriage and contrary to what happens in the Deuteronomic passage in question. For the Christian, our positional redemption is completely past tense - we have been redeemed. [22] Thus, we see footwear as more than a convenience and more than an accessory. [10] See Deuteronomy 25:7–10; Roth, Encyclopaedia, 122, 126, 130; David Bridger, ed., The New Jewish Encyclopedia (New York: Behrman House, 1962), s.v. He wrote that Boaz “bid the woman to loose his shoe and spit in his face, according to the law; and when this was done [Boaz] married Ruth, and they had a son within a year’s time.” [2] Likewise, Methodist commentator Adam Clarke (circa 1760–1832) wrote that the laws explaining what was happening in Ruth 4 are “given at large in Deut.xxv.5–9.” [3] Like Josephus and Clarke, most scholars, whether LDS [4] or non-LDS, [5] tend to see the rite described in Ruth 4 as a biblical example of levirate marriage. [15] See Mace, Hebrew Marriage, 99; Campbell, Ruth, 160–61. [22] I say this is the most common connotation not because it appears the most frequently in scripture, as it certainly does not. [3] And he said unto the kinsman, Naomi, that is come again out of the country of Moab, selleth a parcel of land, which was our brother Elimelech's: Naomi — Both Naomi and Ruth had an interest in this land during their lives, but he mentions only Naomi, because all was done by her direction; lest the mention of Ruth should raise a suspicion of the necessity of his marrying Ruth, before he had given his answer to the first proposition. [13] Of course both concepts are in the image of God as Redeemer—but the implications and linguistic connotations are entirely different. [27] Farbridge, Symbolism, 274; Leland Ryken, James C. Wilhoit, and Tremper Longman III, eds., Dictionary of Biblical Imagery (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998), s.v. . [3] Adam Clarke, Clarke’s Commentary on the Holy Bible (New York: Methodist Book Concern, 1930), 2:201. Ruth 4 If you’ve been here from the beginning of the story, you’ve seen Naomi and her family set out from Bethlehem and go to Moab because of famine. Therewere 10 witnesses. Chapter Contents. [55] We each seek a place in the celestial kingdom of our God. See also Richard Kalmin, “Levirate Law,” in The Anchor Bible Dictionary, ed. However, we must be cautious to approach the passage exegetically rather than eisegetically [19] if we wish to avoid the pitfalls encountered by previous exegetes. For example, in Amos 8:6 we read: “That we may buy the poor for silver, and the needy for a pair of shoes.” See also Amos 2:6. Thus one commentator states that the book of “Ruth has preserved the older meaning of the shoe ceremony—a renunciation of a right.” [43]. This could then be regarded as a public declaration that he was withdrawing from the property and handing it over to another person. [46] Cyril of Jerusalem, “Catechetical Lectures,” in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers—Second Series, ed. . [39] Indeed, one commentator noted that Ruth 4:7 “is best understood as an overly terse way of describing shoe symbolism in two different kinds of transaction; in an exchange transaction, the parties exchanged shoes, while in the matter of giving up the right of redemption, the one ceding the right gave his shoe to the one taking over the right.” [40] As noted above, the right to freely walk on or dwell upon an estate belonged only to the owner—and the shoe served as the perfect symbol of the right of possession. . The Book of Ruth. When it was just a matter of property, it was easy to decide on; but if he must take Ruth as a wife, that was another matter. Thy life — That is, of the comfort of thy life. . Typologist Ada Habershon wrote: “Boaz was a type of Christ . This is, in part, no doubt due to the social function of clothing, meaning that we often use clothing as a form of communication in which we inform others as to how we define ourselves and our relationship to the greater community. The Hebrews referred to this ritual by the name of halitzah (“to draw off”). [20] E. A. Speiser, “Of Shoes and Shekels,” in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 77 (1940), 15; Frank E. Eakin Jr., The Religion and Culture of Israel: An Introduction to Old Testament Thought (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1971), 238. if a person removes his garments in order to show his willingness to deprive himself of everything in life, he ought also to remove his shoes.” [30] This same author continues: Amongst the Hebrews business transactions took place publically in the market-place so that the presence of the whole community, or at least ten of the elders, served to confirm them. Boaz said, “Come over here, my friend, and sit down.” So he went over and sat down. See also Joseph Fielding McConkie and Donald W. Parry, A Guide to Scriptural Symbols (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1990), 22; Kevin J. Conner, Interpreting the Symbols and Types (Portland, OR: City Bible, 1992), 110, 111. “Halitzah”; Ginzberg, Legends, 193–94 note 65; Mace, Hebrew Marriage, 99; Buttrick, Interpreter’s Bible, 848; Hamlin, Theological Commentary, 59. Done and dusted, nothing will ever change that. John Tvedtnes has suggested that “the Hebrew for sandal (na‘al) is probably a wordplay with (nahal), meaning ‘inheritance.’” [52] So the removal of the footwear when participating in the ceremony of the shoe actually highlights what that rite is about. ( Rth 4:6) The nearer kinsman declines his right of redemption towards the property and posterity of Elimelech. This was the method of legalizing transactions in Israel.) Philip Schaff and Henry Wace (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2004), 7:147; emphasis in original. And they sat down. Boaz Marries Ruth. Sometimes they imply the status of the wearer—freedom for the shod (see Luke 15:22) and enslavement or poverty for the barefoot individual (see 2 Chronicles 28:15; Isaiah 20:2). To … xxiii.) [29] Cundall and Morris, Tyndale Commentaries, 307. See Ginzberg, Legends, 4:34 and 6:188n34. and economically improbable.” Speiser, “Shoes,” 18. [13] Brown, Driver, and Briggs, Lexicon, 145; R. B. Taylor, “Avenger of Blood,” in Dictionary of the Bible, ed. But if you will not, tell me, so I will know. . . . Ruth 4:1-5. (Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1981), 263. . He appears to be, at best, a distant relative. See also Louis Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1987), 6:193n65; Josephus, “Antiquities of the Jews,” 121; Mace, Hebrew Marriage, 97, 110; Baker, Women’s Rights, 147; E. John Hamlin, Surely There Is a Future: A Commentary on the Book of Ruth, International Theological Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1996), 59. [11] Thus, again, this cannot be an effort to fulfill the custom of levirate marriage. In the temple, when entering into that covenant with God, we physically remove our shoes as a symbolic statement that such was done of our own free will and choice, and with the knowledge and belief that God will fulfill his portion of that covenant by preparing for us a “promised land,” even the celestial kingdom. Rather, the unnamed male kinsman-redeemer (gō’ēl) is depicted as removing his own shoe. [28] The removal of the sandal, slipper, or shoe at the end of the rite signified that the transaction was completed and that the ritual was legally binding. In chapter 3 Naomi and Ruth make a risky move in the middle of the night. Buy it — According to the law, Deuteronomy 25:5. “The shoe ceremony at the Bethlehem gate was probably like signing a document of transfer. [14] In other words, when the levir fathers a child through his sister-in-law, it is not considered his offspring, but rather the offspring of his deceased brother. [58]. However, many of these suppositions are not necessarily warranted. Ephrathah is another name for Bethlehem, as seen in the parallelism of this verse. [58] Their covenant depicted by the removal of the shoe appears primarily focused on the surrender of temporal things, or property. We read: “Then shall his brother’s wife come unto him in the presence of the elders, and loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face, and shall answer and say, So shall it be done unto that man that will not build up his brother’s house. So that it is no wonder if this ceremony differ a little from that, Deuteronomy 25:9, because that concerned only one case, but this is more general. So if Ruth 4:7–8 is not an example of levirate marriage, what is it? However, when employed in Biblical ritual, shoes have an almost exclusively symbolic purpose. May he become famous throughout Israel! Boaz tells the kinsman-redeemer that Naomi is selling it and he is the first in line to acquire it. See Cooper, Illustrated Encyclopaedia, 152. turn aside, sit down here. (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1963), 80; A. R. S. Kennedy and A. G. MacLeod, “Kin (Next of), Kinsman, Avenger of Blood, Go’el,” in Dictionary of the Bible, 550–51. [5] Then said Boaz, What day thou buyest the field of the hand of Naomi, thou must buy it also of Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of the dead, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance. [42] Here the kinsman-redeemer (gō’ēl) was acknowledging that he had willingly divested himself of his natural right to Elimelech’s former property. “The Halakah explains Ruth 4:7 to refer to the form of acquisition known in rabbinic jurisprudence as Halifin, consisting in the handing over of an object by the purchaser to the seller, as a symbolical substitute for the object bought.” Ginzberg, Legends, 6:194n65. These two are singled out, because they were of a foreign original, and yet ingrafted into God's people, as Ruth was; and because of that fertility which God vouchsafed unto them above their predecessors, Sarah and Rebecca. Simply put, lay Latter-day Saints more often than not gravitate toward this meaning when they contemplate the removal of shoes. Chapter four of the book of Ruth begins with a man named Boaz informing the family member who was next of kin in redeeming the land and heritage of Elimelech (Naomi’s husband), and that heritage included Ruth, his daughter-in-law. [26] Ernest R. Lacheman, Journal of Biblical Literature 56 (1937), 53, 56. The salient portion of Ruth reads: “(Now in earlier times in Israel, for the redemption and transfer of property to become final, one party took off his sandal and gave it to the other. In Israel, if a man died, he left his belongings to his children, if he had no children, he left his belongings to his brothers, and so forth it went. Alonzo L. Gaskill, “The 'Ceremony of the Shoe': A Ritual of God's Ancient Covenant People,” in By Our Rites of Worship: Latter-day Saint Views on Ritual in Scripture, History, and Practice, ed. READ RUTH CHAPTER 4 all. [21] Maurice H. Farbridge, Studies in Biblical and Semitic Symbolism (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1923), 214, 224. See also Hamlin, Theological Commentary, 57; Buttrick, Interpreter’s Bible, 849. Thus, removal of the shoe symbolizes the relinquishing of control. Cancel {{#items}} {{/items}} Ruth 4. In contrast, going barefoot is occasionally utilized as a sign of mourning (see 2 Samuel 15:30; Ezekiel 24:17, 23). The early twentieth-century Scottish linguist and typologist Harold Bayley saw connections between the shoe or slipper and Christ. The dialogue is brief. This was done in order to raise up seed unto the name of his prematurely deceased sibling (see Deuteronomy 25:5–6). At least as early as the first century of the Common Era, commentators were reading the Ruth passage as an example of levirate marriage. [13] So Boaz took Ruth, and she was his wife: and when he went in unto her, the LORD gave her conception, and she bare a son. Scripture: Ruth 4. Of course, it is possible that at some point in history there was a connection between, or blending of, the ceremony of the shoe and levirate marriage [44]—after all, the latter of these was not solely concerned with producing a male heir for a deceased relative.

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