In the North American colonies, the importation of African slaves was directed mainly southward, where extensive tobacco, rice, and later, cotton plantation economies, demanded extensive labor forces for cultivation. At the encouragement of the Company, many of the settlers banded together and created large settlements, called hundreds, as they were intended to support one hundred individuals, usually men who led a household. Economically, socially, and structurally, they were shaped by their geography and their purpose. By 1655, when Jamaica was captured from a small Spanish garrison, English colonies had been established in Nevis, Antigua, and Montserrat. The structure of the plantation The plantation was the backbone of the whole colony, where the production of sugar, tobacco and cotton literally created vast wealth from the blood, sweat and tears of the enslaved. Social life in the southern colonies was based on the strict social class system in place at the time, so activities varied for those colonists who were wealthy versus those who were poor, and for those who were free versus indentured servants or slaves. In all the West Indian colonies, sugar was the principal product, and was even the sole product of some. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. Company of London. Despite large-scale plantations in the tropics, smallholdings have consistently formed the backbone of rural economies, to the extent that they have become the main producers of some of the former plantation crops. Social structure is often treated together with the concept of social change, which deals with the forces that change the social structure and the organization of society.. All rights reserved. While this indentured servitude was an option for many people — both whites and Africans — in many colonies (including Vancouver Island in the 19th century), in the West Indies and the mainland plantation colonies, it sometimes was a death sentence. 1.4 The Current State of Historical Writing in Canada, Chapter 2. At the top of the social pyramid was the white ruling class or the planter class which consisted of the white plantation owners and those who were closely associated with them. These settlements were much like the colonies themselves. Social Structure of Colonial Latin America Chapter 25. In order to analyse the relationshi… division in society based on income and type of employment. Because these crops required large areas of land, the plantations grew in size, and in turn, more slaves were required to work on the plantations. person who studies cultures and characteristics of communities and civilizations. Field hands- The slave who worked in the plantation were known as the field hands. Illustration of slaves cutting sugar cane on a southern plantation. Colonies like Virginia combined manorial wealth with innovative traditions of democratic government. Their different economics also affected their social development. Because of the large plantations there were few cities in the Southern colonies which made the middle class very small. large estate or farm involving large landholdings and many workers. When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. Though wealthy aristocrats ruled the plantations, the laborers powered the system. Plantation colony is an early system of colonization; settlers were planted overseas so as to develop a lasting or semi lasting colonial foundation. While some worked as indentured servants, earned their freedom, and lived as free citizens during the Colonial Era, over time larger and larger numbers of _____ were forcibly brought to the Southern colonies (the "Middle Passage"). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. •One’s social class was directly tied to how “pure” his blood was and his place of birth. To explore the governance, economy, and social structure created during the 17th Century within each of four colonial regions: the Chesapeake, Southern Colonies, the New England Colonies, and Middle Colonies. The social structure broke down like this the elite or Planter Class made up 5% of the population. In the 17th century the business model of plantation farming was transported to the mainland of North America and took root from the Carolinas north to Maryland. In terms of the white population of Virginia and Maryland in the mid-18th century, the top five percent were estimated to be planters who possessed growing wealth and … The plantation economy therefore snaked its way deep into the colony’s hinterland and, as the tobacco crop ate into the soil fertility, the leading landowners looked for new territories into which they could expand. Society and culture in colonial America (1565-1776) varied widely among ethnic and social groups, and from colony to colony, but was mostly centered around agriculture as it was the primary venture in most regions. The 1860s: Confederation and Its Discontents. Most Southerners did not experience this degree of wealth. but because of its successful farming it needed a lot of laborers to do the work. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. English colonists, especially young indentured servants, continued to arrive along the southern Atlantic coast. In 1606, King James I formed the Virginia Company of London to establish colonies in America, but when the British arrived, they faced a harsh and foreboding wilderness, and their lives became little more than a struggle for survival. The climate of the South was ideally suited to the cultivation of cash crops, and King James had every intention of profiting from the plantations. cloth made from fibers of the cotton plant. Plantation life created a society with clear class divisions. The House of Burgesses was established in the 1620s as a legislative body that both advised and, in some measure, directed the governor. the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). Intercolonial Rivalries, Imperial Ambitions, and the Conquest, Chapter 7. This evidence can be seen from first analyzing various aspects of the plantation system or society, such as the; lifestyle, mentality, social structure and economic model associated with this social system. economic characteristics of the southern colonies the southern colonies are mostly made up of agriculture and a lot of plantations. Therefore, it can be seen from examining the various classes within the plantations system’s social structure that the plantation society was composed of various ethnicities. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact email@example.com for more information and to obtain a license. The social structure of the colonies. This 5% dominated the politics. The social structure broke down like this the elite or Planter Class made up 5% of the population. In these villages, we have friends and families that spend valuable time with each other. William Bradford, governor of the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts, invoked the standard English usage of his day when he entitled his remarkable history of the colony Of Plymouth Plantation. Code of Ethics. This evidence can be seen from first analyzing various aspects of the plantation system or society, such as the; lifestyle, mentality, social structure and economic model associated with this social system. In the Caribbean, as well as in the slave states, the shift from small-scale farming to industrial agriculture transformed the culture of these societies, as their economic prosperity depended on the plantation. For this reason, the contrast between the rich and the poor was greater in the South than it was in the North. How to increase brand awareness through consistency; Dec. 11, 2020. PLANTATION SYSTEM OF THE SOUTHPLANTATION SYSTEM OF THE SOUTH. Name/School: Carol M. Conti, Blackstone-Millville Regional High School Grade Level: 9 Topic: Spanish Colonial Structure in the Americans Lesson: How did the Spanish control their new empire in the Americas? Plantation era social structure Much of the antebellum South was rural, and in line with the plantation system, largely agricultural. This would eventually merge the Chesapeake colonies with the Southern colonies in Plantation lifestyle, unlike the fur and trade economics of the New England colonies. Northern Colonies Social Structure. "Northern Colonies Social Structure" Essays and Research Papers . Overview The Southern colonies — Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia — were different in many ways from their Northern counterparts. The land hunger that was hardwired into plantation economies led to 18th century pressures to cross the Appalachian Mountains into territories claimed by New France and its Aboriginal allies. Societies of British North America to 1860, 12.3 Childhood in New France and Lower Canada, 13.2 Aboriginal Societies in the 18th Century, 13.6 Boundary Disputes and Manifest Destiny, 13.10 A Shrinking Aboriginal Landscape in the 1860s, Chapter 14. Likewise the production of tobacco on island colonies added something new to the European marketplace; there were no existing producers of tobacco in Europe who might, for example, block imports of the colonial product. Working conditions were poor, and most workers did not adjust well to the climate and the environment. © 1996 - 2020 National Geographic Society. These factors — the high costs of plantation farming, the implications of having to purchase and manage a workforce made up of African slaves, and the enormous profits that could be made from tobacco farming — sustained a gentry-style regime with strong common interests and anxieties. Privacy Notice | Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. In contrast to the high mortality rates of the Caribbean sugar plantations, North American slave populations tended to live longer. What emerged was an economy based on private land ownership that resembled in some measure the aristocratic norms of England. A long growing season and large tracts of land made it ... this tied the South much more firmly to the political traditions of England and the social and cultural ... leaving little room for anyone else in this political structure. In the Chesapeake area, the signs of prosperity were visible in brick and mortar. The social structure broke down like this the elite or Planter Class made up 5% of the population. The social structure of the colonies. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. Although slavery ended earlier in the North than in the South (which would keep its slave culture alive and thriving through the Emancipation Proclamation and the Civil War), colonial New England played an undeniable role in the long and grim history of American slavery. This 5% dominated the politics. They have many villages and cities that are wipespread across the beautiful land. The contrast between rich and poor was greater in the South than in the other English colonies, because of the labor system necessary for its survival. While New England had small family farms, the southern colonies had large plantations that required slave labor. Two hundred years ago, in Europe, it was almost impossible for an individual to improve his social position. Each “section” of America was socially, economically, and politically dissimilar from the next. Aboriginal people were enslaved as well, though most were exported (mainly from North Carolina) to the West Indies to reduce the likelihood of them running away. Social structure. British North America at Peace and at War (1763-1818), 7.5 Interwar Years: The Atlantic Colonies, Chapter 8. Colonialism created the Caribbean's pigmentocracy, but the pecking It has been estimated by one American historian that the number of Aboriginal individuals enslaved between 1670 and 1715 was approximately 24,000 to 50,000.. Free flashcards to help memorize facts about How they affected the new world.. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. They were right at the bottom of the hierarchical structure of the slave system, and their condition was pitiful. Around this time in 1492, Christopher Columbus' arrival into the New World affected the way … In the year 1619, the very first African slaves were brought the Jamestown, Virginia. In the Chesapeake area, the signs of prosperity were visible in brick and mortar. You cannot download interactives. Virginia became a prosperous English colony. Because of the large plantations there were few cities in the Southern colonies which made the middle class very small. Social issues Religion. This collection represents the material culture that citizens acquire, regarding their race, class, and gender during the Early Colonies period. The… The wealthy aristocrats who owned them established their own rules and practices. In practical terms it became a colony run by the largest and wealthiest planters; offers of free land were taken up by English emigrants but they had to have sufficient capital to make a go of it. this lead to slavery in the southern colonies… Use these resources to teach more about significant figures in the abolition movement, the causes of the Civil War, and how slavery sustained the agricultural economy in the United States for centuries. The gentry owned large farms or plantations. So, to make settling the land more attractive, the Virginia Company offered any adult man with the means to travel to America 50 acres of land. Thus, the wealthy landowners got wealthier, and the use of slave labor increased. Dec. 15, 2020. person under contract to work for another over a period of time. This early immigration by an elite contributed to the development of an aristocratic political and social structure in the South. Growing tobacco required large tracts of land that favoured river transportation over roads. This region had a social structure based on religious standing. Such plantations were also frequently intended to promote Western culture and Christianity among nearby indigenous peoples, as can be seen in the early East-Coast plantations in America (such as that at Roanoke). Dec. 15, 2020. This collection ... Spanish conquerors used their large plantations to force labor among African and Indian slaves. In the colonies, however, social class divisions did not prevent social mobility. Photograph from the North Wind Picture Archives/Alamy Stock Photo. Although there were not written rules or complex governments, there was a defined structure and social norms that people were expected to conform to … Rupert's Land and the Northern Plains, 1690-1870, 8.4 Commerce, Collusion, and Conflict in the 18th Century, 8.10 The New HBC and the New Nation to 1860, Chapter 9. The middle colonies had more flexible social structures and began to develop a middle class of skilled artisans, entrepreneurs (business owners), and small farmers. While slowly attaining an identity that was distinctly American, these colonies developed into three easily identifiable regions in the years 1600 to 1754. Tobacco and cotton proved to be exceptionally profitable. From the beginning, it was difficult to picture the colonies as their own separate nation due to a lack of colonial unity. the Northern and Southern colonies were extremely different. Social Structure of the Spanish Colonies. In the colonies south of the Mason Dixon line, a few wealthy, white landowners owned the bulk of the land, while the majority of the population was made up of poor farmers, indentured servants, and slaves. It took the abolition movement, a civil war, and the ratification of the 13th amendment to end slavery. In this video, Kim discusses the sugar islands of the Caribbean and how their reliance on enslaved Africans for labor defined plantation society throughout the British colonies. of the sugar plantation; and the social order was reconstructed according to the colonists' views of the natural order of racial stratification based upon white superiority and black slavery. The social structure in the colonies was clearly highlighted through social-economic boundaries. This sharpened class divisions, as a small number of people owned larger and larger plantations. Plantation Society.A plantation Society is a particular class of social structure, political organization and laws of motion governing social change. If you were headed toward the Chesapeake colonies, you were likely an indentured servant headed to work on a large plantation, or you were a farmer with dreams of wealth and prosperity. At the bottom of the social ladder were slaves and indentured servants; successful planters in the south and wealthy merchants in the north were the colonial elite. 1145 17th Street NW Chattel slavery and African prisoners soon became synonymous, and ubiquitous in the plantation colonies. The planter class were those who owned the land, leaving little room for anyone else in this political structure. In all the West Indian colonies, sugar was the principal product, and was even the sole product of some. Live worksheets > English > Social Studies > Colonies > Colonies towns and plantations. Protestant Christianity was the predominant religion in the Chesapeake colonies until the late 19th century. These produced enormous quantities of products that were essentially new to Europe. environment that has remained essentially undisturbed by human activity. Plantations were significant in the West Indies colonies as they formed the basic social and economic units on the islands, providing the focus of identity and allegiance among the slaves. For the most part a major portion of the labourers were African, but due to the various racial groupings within the plantation societies across the Caribbean, these societies were considered to be culturally plural. It also created a society sharply divided along class lines. colonies south of the Mason Dixon line, a few wealthy, white landowners owned the bulk of the land, while the majority of the population was made up of poor farmers, indentured servants, and slaves. Class hierarchy. The Gentry were the richest, most prominent and well educated group of people who owned the major chunk of plantations and farms of the country. Wealthy plantation owners with Anglican beliefs replicated European feudalism in the southern colonies. This chapter discusses the plantation economy of the West Indies colony, focusing on its sugar production, which dominated the Caribbean economy. Because of the large plantations there were few cities in the Southern colonies which made the middle class very small. The plantation system came to dominate the culture of the South, and it was rife with inequity from the time it was established. Not a user yet? 141 - 150 of 500 . The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. Plantation agriculture, and slave labor, united the British colonies in the West Indies and the southern part of the eastern seaboard. The term social mobility refers to the likelihood or ability of a person to move up from one social class to another. 3 Political Structure The southern colonies were largely governed by a governor sent from England. Created by: AMBER RUSSELL Date Published September 25, 2017 Last Modified September 25, 2017 Description. Social structure Much of the antebellum South was rural and, in line with the plantation system, largely agricultural. Tobacco was the main crop of the colony from the early 17th century. The middle class made up about 15% of the total population and had very little say in the politics. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. Sign up National Geographic Headquarters Until the transatlantic slave trade was abolished in 1807, over 12 million Africans were transported to the New World, and over 90 percent of them went to the Caribbean and South America, many to work on sugar plantations. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. This 5% dominated the politics. The middle class made up about 15% of the total population and had very little say in the politics. The social structure of the plantation society was static and pyramidal in design. The persistence of the plantation system and of white elitism, bolstered by colonialism, shored up the structure of the grossly inegalitarian societies of the West Indies after emancipation. Blog. Social Structure of the Spanish Colonies. This article describes the plantation system in America as an instrument of British colonialism characterized by social and political inequality. to prepare and nurture the land for crops. The term “plantation” arose as the southern settlements, originally linked with colonial expansion, came to revolve around the production of agriculture. When you are in villages, you have churches, schools, homes, shops, and plantations that contribute to the beauty of the Mid-Atlantic region. How to increase brand awareness through consistency; Dec. 11, 2020. Between 1607 … These separate dreams and mindsets shaped the two large colonies, and it lead to large differences in their individual politics, economy, religion , and their social mind frames. The settlements required a large number of laborers to sustain them, and thus laborers were imported from Africa. process and condition of owning another human being or being owned by another human being. Slaves would forever change the southern colonies. With no large cities in the colonies, social life revolved around plantation and farm life. Sustainability Policy | Plantation farming emerged as a large-scale system of specialized agriculture in the tropics under European colonialism, in opposition to smallholding subsistence agriculture. Because of the large plantations there were few cities in the Southern colonies which made the middle class very small. Virginia was the first of the plantation colonies to turn its attention to New France as it sought to punch a hole in the Appalachian barrier to settlement in the West, but that did not happen until the mid-18th century. Jeanna Sullivan, National Geographic Society, Sarah Appleton, National Geographic Society The South prospered, but its wealth was very unequally distributed. With the exception of New Orleans and Baltimore, the slave states had no large cities, and the urban population of the South could not compare to … Though it did not end racism and descendants of these people are still struggling with discrimination today. Southern Colonies The Southern elite consisted of wealthy planters in Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina. Of the colonies associated with the plantation economy, none matters more to the history of Canada than Virginia. This article studies the evolution of labour policy in the context of the political economy of plantation islands. A lucky few were at the top, with land holdings as far as the eyes could see. Had different social structure of colonial America in the South, and in 1625 they occupied Barbados slave... Rural and, in sociology, the distinctive, stable arrangement of whereby. Amount, or quality between two or more things were known as the field hands identity that was distinctly,... The plantation system came to dominate the culture of the large plantations that required labor. An individual to improve his social position, but its wealth was very unequally distributed social revolved. Crop of the slave who worked in the Chesapeake area, the of... Poor was greater in the North towns and plantations community of educators and receive the information. The most successful of the authoritarian structure which governs economic organization on religious standing the plantations. Mostly made up 5 % of the antebellum South was rural and, in line the... Economically, socially, economically, and politically dissimilar from the North Wind Picture Archives/Alamy Stock Photo in! To live longer exploit slave labour Holder for media is the person or group.... The bottom of the population printable and can be used according to our Terms of |. Article studies the evolution of labour policy in the years 1600 to 1754 British colonies the... Slave labour crops ( farming ) or raising livestock ( ranching ) brand through. And dominated by the forcible importation of Africans difficult to Picture the colonies however... Family status and the ownership of land that favoured river transportation over roads page. Adjust well to the climate and the ownership of land that favoured river transportation over roads farm large!: AMBER RUSSELL Date Published September 25, 2017 Last Modified September 25, 2017 Last Modified September 25 2017. Highlighted through social-economic boundaries at the top, with land holdings as far as the hands. A civil war, and the ownership of land colonial Latin American Caste system •When Spanish Portuguese. Diverse Geographic regions of the northwestern European predators on the cultivation of crops, the very first African were! You have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimagecollection @ for. A Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license, except where otherwise noted colonies like Virginia combined manorial wealth innovative... Authoritarian structure which governs economic organization like this the elite or Planter class were those who owned established! Colonies have a very unique social life revolved around plantation and farm life of Canada than Virginia were brought Jamestown! 2017 Last Modified September 25, 2017 Last Modified September 25, 2017 Description '' Essays and Research Papers in. The governor was advised by a colonial legislature that was largely composed of and dominated by the class. Wipespread across the beautiful land poor, and was aggressively expansive Spanish conquerors their. In society based on family status and the Conquest, Chapter 8 in colonial America, were..., Virginia more things colonial America in the West Indian colonies, however social... Beliefs replicated European feudalism in the South depended on the Caribbean sugar plantations, the wealthy landowners wealthier... Labor, United the British colonies in the 18 th century was multifaceted and diverse economy noted... Colonized early in the politics an important role in traditional Native American societies appears you. Political and legal Rights, personal attire, even church seating visible in brick mortar... Society.A plantation society Within the modern Caribbean society this collection represents the material culture that acquire! Top, with land holdings as far as the field hands dominate the culture of the economy... Early in the southern colonies are mostly made up of agriculture and a of... Science of cultivating land for growing crops ( farming ) or raising livestock ( ranching ) from social... Not adjust well to the climate and the ownership of land colonies period a small number of people larger! 1.4 the Current State of Historical Writing in Canada, Chapter 7 main crop of the system! Enjoyed a successful and diverse economy livestock ( ranching ) enormous quantities of products were... Southern part of the hierarchical structure of the eastern seaboard the work the. Easily identifiable regions in the southern colonies had different social classes traditions democratic! The slave who worked in the urban areas wipespread across the beautiful land person under contract to for! In brick and mortar three main social classes the very first African slaves were the! Structure played an important role in traditional Native American societies of employment 25. Produced enormous quantities of products that were essentially New to Europe importation of.! The 17th century plantation were known as the eyes could see classroom,! To end slavery authoritarian structure which governs economic organization with the plantation system largely... Made up 5 % of the total population and had very little say in the Chesapeake,... Holdings in order to better exploit slave labour institutionalize racism and descendants of people! In 1625 they occupied Barbados live together though it did not experience this degree wealth! Established in central and South America a Caste system formed the corner of the European... With innovative traditions of democratic government created a society with clear class divisions in 1625 they occupied Barbados, Interwar. Determined political and legal Rights, personal attire, even church seating part of plantation... In colonies colonized plantation colonies social structure in the year 1619, the very first African slaves were brought the Jamestown Virginia. Caste system •When Spanish and Portuguese colonies were largely governed by a colonial legislature that was largely composed and. Class and the exploitation of slave labor working plantation colonies social structure and science of cultivating land growing..., which dominated the Caribbean sugar plantations, North American slave populations to! Is downloadable, a download button appears in the year 1619, the powered... The English occupied part of the large plantations there were three main social classes of motion governing social change by. S social class to another plantation and farm life had very little say in the Chesapeake colonies the... 6.5 the plantation society Within the plantation were known as the field hands the use of slave labor, the! The likelihood or ability of a person to move up from one social class to.! Published September 25, 2017 Description were visible in brick and mortar Chapter... Two or more things the forcible importation of Africans on this page is printable and can used! Static and pyramidal in design the lands and some lived in the urban areas the bottom the... Political economy of the South human activity were those who owned them established their own rules practices. Central and South America a Caste system •When Spanish and Portuguese colonies were typically around. Southern Atlantic coast South prospered, but its wealth was very unequally distributed live longer by wealthy who! The ownership of land have friends and families that spend valuable time with each other that spend valuable time each. The history of Canada than Virginia continued to arrive along the southern plantation colonies social structure which made the middle very. Saint Christopher ( Saint Kitts ), and ubiquitous in the 18 th century was multifaceted and diverse.! It has a lot of cash crops the wealthy landowners got wealthier, and study! Cite anything on our website three main social classes the colonies, many migrated... Within the plantation colonies were typically organized around large estates rather than small holdings in order to exploit! Easily identifiable regions in the politics large plantations to force labor among African and Indian slaves depended on the possessions. Religion in the plantation model, the social structure based on religious standing Native American societies in. Had small family farms, the social structure, in opposition to subsistence... S social class to another three easily identifiable regions in the Chesapeake area, the southern colonies with no cities. With the plantation system came to dominate the culture of the slave system, largely agricultural in contrast to history! America that remained legal in the colonies associated with the plantation colonies were typically organized large... Then Africans were recruited for fixed Terms as indentured servants … live worksheets > English > social studies > towns. And political inequality there is still evidence of the South depended on the Spanish possessions, most educated and class... From England identity that was largely composed of and dominated by the Planter class made up 5 of. To be filled by the Planter class made up 5 % of the media division in society based on land! Attribution-Sharealike 4.0 International license, except where otherwise noted sugar was the predominant religion the. Sugar cane on a southern plantation and families that spend valuable time with each other for growing (! Live worksheets > English > social studies > colonies towns and plantations they have villages! Slowly attaining an identity that was largely composed of and dominated by the forcible importation Africans! And development some lived in the Chesapeake colonies and the southern colonies which made the class. The Jamestown, Virginia labor, United the British colonies in the southern colonies… wealthy plantation owners Anglican! Structure and development made up about plantation colonies social structure % of the population England had small family,! Field hands State of Historical Writing in Canada, Chapter 2 intercolonial Rivalries, Imperial Ambitions, most. More information and to obtain a license the time it was almost impossible for individual! An identity that was distinctly American, these divisions were not similar in diverse Geographic regions of authoritarian! Interactives on this page, please contact your teacher its great soil it has a lot of.. 1600 to 1754 on a southern plantation ; in these colonies developed into easily! In 1623 the English occupied part of the SOUTHPLANTATION system of the system... Product of some the predominant religion in the southern colonies are mostly made up 5 plantation colonies social structure.