literature review on african star apple

Apple have already pounced on the opportunity by creating the iPhone, iPad and Apple Watch. The high saponification value can be attributed to process parameters such as extraction time, the temperature of extraction, and particle sizes of the milled seeds as reported by [36]. Gender equality and Climate Compatible Development . Siphamandla Zondi. The pseudo-first-order equation fitted the experimental data well for CaCl2 (R2 = 0.94) while MgCl2 (R2 = 0.97) and ZnCl2 (R2 = 0.97) fitted the pseudo-second-order equation. Development into an acceptable food supplement (FS) with anti-stress potentials has not been explored. An amount of the milled seed was used for the Soxhlet extraction [26]. Once again, the cotyledons contained in the african star apple seeds have an anti-hyperglycemia effect that has an effect on the decrease in high … Chemical parameters and sensory attributes were determined. The option of multiple revisions will help you polish the paper for free and turn it … Chemical activation with CaCl2 seems not to perform as efficient as that of the ZnCl2 and MgCl2 as shown in Figure 2. The seeds and roots extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum are used to arrest bleeding from fresh wounds and to inhibit microbial growth of known wound contaminants and also enhance the wound healing process [11]. This is different from values of 2.57 mg/KOH/g by Musa, Isah [30], 4.50 mg/KOH/g for Adebayor, Orhevba [27], and 19.70 mg/KOH/g for Ominyi, Ominyi [31]. Names of Star Apple in various languages of the world are also given. The FTIR analysis of the extracted oil was also found to contain some functional groups. It was performed to determine the various functional groups of the chemical components using the Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Model I-R Prestige 21 Shimadzu. Similarly, [13] investigated into the extraction and characterisation of the seed oil. Apple Inc Report contains a full analysis of Apple corporate social responsibility including Apple CSR issues. 5-Hydroxylmethylfurfural was the dominant Bioactive observed. FS also significantly (P = 0.05) enhanced (36–109%) the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Conclusively, the seeds may not have sufficient oil volume potential to be used as edible (domestic) and industrial oil. The most widely used adsorbent is activated carbon [16]. The oil extracted from the African Star Apple seeds (Chrysophyllum albidum) with hexane using the soxhlet apparatus was physically and chemically analyzed and gave the following results as presented in Table 1. Pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetics of the dye. The tree grows as a wild plant and belongs to the family of Sapotaceae which has up to 800 species and constitutes almost half of the order [1]. Sapotaceae ), African star apple is a popular tropical fruit tree that is widely distributed throughout the southern part of Nigeria. Blending with pre-gelatinized starch (pulp:starch, 7:3) followed, yielding the FS. Dr Lisa Schipper and Lara Langston. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Mean Sensory (taste) scores for food supplemented with FS (5.5 ± 1.17) compared favourably with the unsupplemented (6.2 ± 1.03). It is a small-to-medium tree species, up to a height of 25-37 m having a mature girth varying from 1.5 to 2.0 m [2]. (Chairman, 1976-1985, 2011; CEO, 1997–2011)( Current :Tim Cook. We will take a look at African Star Apple, known in Ga as Alasa. *This sample paper was adapted by the Writing Center from Key, K.L., Rich, C., DeCristofaro, C., Collins, S. (2010). The adsorption data used to support the findings of this study are included within the supplementary information file (available here). Many consume it as just a fruit, without knowing the nutritional benefits. African star apple validated to reduce blood sugar, cholesterol By CHUKWUMA MUANYA, Assistant Editor (Head Insight Team, Science and Technology) 07 January 2016 | 6:10 am Published online: 13 May 2020. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Imaginative and inspiring, Author Wilson Ayinbangya Amooro displays a refreshing and unique literary style th… A Mohammed et al., “Extraction of chrysophyllum albidum seed oil: optimisation and characterisation,”, C. E. Ominyi, C. J. Ominyi, and U. Nwali, “Extraction, characterization and fatty acid profile of African star apple seed (chrysophyllum albidum) oil,” in, S. R. Antony, D. S. smart, and C. R. Lee, “Biodiesel production from jatroph a oil and its characterization,”, T. F. Akinhanmi, V. N. Atasie, and P. O. Akintokun, “Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of cashew nut (, U. D. Akpabio and I. Akpan, “Extraction and characterization of oils from avocado pear (persea americana) and native pear (dacryodes edulis) fruits,”, E. Akbar, Y. Zahira, K. K. Siti, I. Manal, and S. Jumat, “Characteristics and composition of jatropha curcas oil seed from malaysia and its potential as biodiesel feedstock,”, S. M. Mahale and A. S. Goswami-Giri, “Composition and characterization of refined oil compared with its crude oil from waste obtained from mangifera indica,”, J. M. Nzikou, L. Matos, G. Bouanga-Kalou et al., “Chemical composition on the seeds and oil of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) grown in Congo-Brazzaville,”, E. Zahir, R. Saeed, M. A. Hameed, and A. Yousuf, “Study of physicochemical properties of edible oil and evaluation of frying oil quality by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy,”, S. Anwer, El-Badry., and S. S. Ali, “Essential oils: a promising remedy against fungal and bacterial human Keratitis,”, D. K. Kowanga, G. O. Mauti, and E. Mbaka, “Effect of crude and defatted Moringa oliefera seeds as natural coagulants in the removal of physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters from turbid river water,”, S. Oscar, “Physico-chemical properties of oil from some selected underutilized oil seeds available for biodiesel preparation,”. Apple’s 1997 “Think Different” marketing campaign was one of its most memorable ever. The refractive index indicates the level of optical clarity of the crude oil sample relative to water. The kinetics of the adsorption favoured a pseudo-first-order reaction pathway for CaCl2 with R2 of 0.941 while ZnCl2 and MgCl2 favoured a pseudo-second-order reaction pathway with R2 of 0.914 and 0.973, respectively. An acceptable FS with good anti-stress potential has been developed to further expand the utilization for ASA. ‎This course is a study of the periods and major genres of African-American Literature – poetry, prose, drama, vernacular tradition, essays, and non-fiction. Low free fatty acids content is indicative of low enzymatic hydrolysis. This could be attributed to the active vacant sites within the activated shells as reported by [40]. . Most plant seeds are a source of essential oils. Writing a literature review is the next task in progressing with my Ph.D. Africa Star apple (ASA) remains under-utilized. Generally, the roots, barks, and leaves of Chrysophyllum albidum are widely used as an application to sprains, bruises, and wounds in southern Nigeria [10]. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of statement or the study’s goals or purpose. Figure 2 shows the effect of contact time of adsorption of the shells in the dye solution. The saponification value obtained was 200 mg/KOH/g which was closer to the value of 199.50 mg/KOH/g obtained for Adebayor, Orhevba [27]. Also known as Agbalumo in Yoruba, Udara in Igbo, and Otien in Edo, the African star apple farming is lucrative. Extraction and Characterisation of African Star Apple (, Department of Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, Department of Chemistry, Water and Sanitation Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, R% is the percentage recovery of methyl orange from the solution, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, J. E. Ehiagbonare, H. I. Onyibe, and E. E. Okoegwale, “Studies on the isolation of normal and abnormal seedlings of Chrysophyllum albidum: a step towards sustainable management of the taxon in the 21st century,”, N. A. Amusa, O. This complex taste lends itself well when paired in sweet dishes as a dessert or added to a cocktail. Saponification value of oil serves as an important parameter in determining the suitability of the oil for soap making [34]. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to identify the various functional groups present in the oil. Oil from plant and animal are employed in the formulation of foods, cosmetics, and drugs in many industrial activities [5]. This was higher than that obtained by Adebayor, Orhevba [27] and Musa, Isah [30] but lower than that obtained Ominyi, Ominyi [31]. It was further air-dried for 7 days and then oven-dried in a laboratory oven (MMM Medcenter Ecocell 55) at 105°C for 8 hours to reduce the moisture content. The initial concentrations of the methyl orange are 0.2mg/l for CaCl2 and MgCl2, respectively, and 0.5mg/l for ZnCl2. The mixtures were then agitated with a hot plate agitator at 200rpm and 60°C for four hours. (Supplementary Materials). Physical and chemical parameters of the African Star Apple seed oil (Chrysophyllum albidum) are presented in Table 1. The dried seeds were milled using a laboratory rotary mill (IKA M20 Universal Mill). The seeds of Chrysophyllum albidum have been used in the adsorption of lead Pb from industrial wastewater by some researchers [23] where the effects of pH, contact time, and adsorbent mass were monitored. The spectral analysis as displayed in Figure 1 shows the various peaks of the functional groups present in the oil. ZnCl2 and MgCl2 exhibit similar reduction characteristics on the dye. The refractive index of the extracted oil was 1.464 which agreed with that of 1. It shows the initial concentrations of the dye (Methyl orange) as well as the adsorbent (Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell) which was activated with three different chemicals (CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2). Adsorption has advantages over other methods of remediation of heavy metals from wastewater because its design is simple; it is sludge-free and can be of low capital intensive [15]. Ripe African Star Apples are savoury-sweet and tart in taste. To remind us all of the humanity of these refugees, and perhaps shed a little light on their experience, below are a few recommendations for great works of literature either written by refugees, or about the refugee experience, or both—not, of course, an exhaustive list by … In good oil, the acid value should be very low (< 0.1) and an increase in acid value is an indicator of oxidation of the oil which may lead to gum and sludge formation beside corrosion. Impact on oxidative stress marker - malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) were monitored in Rats stressed and fed FS. Z. Abidin, R. Yunus, and A. Muhammad, “Extraction of oil from Jatropha seeds-optimization and kinetics,”, T. O. K. Ando, E. O. Aluyor, S. Egualeona, and S. S. Momoh, “Extraction and characterization of Chrysophyllum albidum and Luffa cylindrica seed oils,”, Emmanuel S. A., O. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Star Apple. The dried shells were then activated in a furnace at a temperature of 550°C for 4 hours to complete the activation process of the Chrysophyllum albidum shells. Literature Review Of African Star Apple In case you are not satisfied with the level of professionalism of Literature Review Of African Star Apple your writer, you can easily change the writer. Some other researchers [14] investigated into the effect of process variables (particle size, temperature, and time) on the extraction of oil from Nigerian Chrysophyllum. The low oil yield could be attributed to variation in genes, climate, plant species, soil condition, and improper processing techniques such as prolonged exposure of harvested seeds to sunlight which is capable of impairing the oil yield considerably [32]. Methyl orange with a concentration of 0.2mg/L and 0.5mg/L was prepared and used as the adsorbent for this study. Africa Review, Volume 12, Issue 2 (2020) Articles . The acid value is an important indicator of oxidation of the oil. Billboards and banners featured huge black-and-white portraits of performers, artists, scientists, and political leaders whose outsider ideas eventually became mainstream. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Fascinated and intrigued by every word, I found that when I thought I had found a favorite, the next poem was even better! After the first two hours, the rate of reduction of the dye decreases until equilibrium was reached after 5 hours of contact time for all the three seed shells with different activation. The Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) assists developing countries to design and deliver climate compatibledevelopment. In parts of Anambra and Imo States, this tree (African Star Apple) forms the focal point or venue for a fertility rite, in which young girls, childless wives celebrates a festivity – eating, singing and dancing for the sole purpose of praying to the gods of birth, this is a gesture of charity, since children are freely entertained without discrimination or distinction. Supplement significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde). African star apple is one of source to do a Diabetes Treatments With Natural Sources and Activities. The Apple Valley Review is an online literary journal. Hence, the amount of solute sorbed per gram of sorbent at equilibrium (qe) and the first-order rate constant (k1) can be evaluated from the slope and intercept. 1g of the activated shell was weighed and dissolved in a litre of the solution and stirred using a laboratory stirrer at 250rpm. Article. Studies were conducted by [25] on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (ll), nickel (II), lead (II), and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) shell and realised the process is highly pH-dependent. Steam-activated carbon prepared from Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell for the adsorption of Cadmium in wastewater (kinetics, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies) was also investigated by [24] and was observed to be a potential sequester of Cadmium in wastewater. Selected major works and authors are taken from all the periods of African-American literature to show the breadth and variety of African-Ameri… According to a report published by the African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, the leaves of the star apple tree and to some extent the flesh of the fruit itself, possess some chemical nutrients which have similar properties to insulin found in the body, and believed to effectively reduce blood sugar levels. The results showed an average oil yield obtained of 11.6%, specific gravity of 0.92kg/m3, the refractive index of 1.464 at 30°C, an acid value of 7.72 mg KOH/g, a free fatty acid value of 3.16 g/100g, saponific… ( Ronald Wayne. The results showed an average oil yield obtained of 11.6%, specific gravity of 0.92kg/m3, the refractive index of 1.464 at 30°C, an acid value of 7.72 mg KOH/g, a free fatty acid value of 3.16 g/100g, saponification value of 200.56 mg KOH/g, and an iodine value of 70.64 g/100g. How Star Apple is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. This is the adsorption data that was used for this study. More extensive information about the journal is available here. B. Adelola, P. A. Aderemi, J. M. Jiya, and O. F. Jumoke, “Solvent extraction and characterisation of oil from african StarApple (Chrysophyllum albidum) seeds,”, M. Umaru, A. G. Isah, M. U. Garba, and U. Zelihatu, “Extraction of Chrysophyllum albidum seed oil: optimization and characterization,”, T. Viraraghvan and M. M. Dronamraju, “Removal of copper, nickel and zinc from wastewater by adsorption using peat,”, M. A. Amer, F. I. Khaili, and A. M. Awwad, “Adsorption of lead, zinc and cadmium ions on polyphosphate-modified kaolinite clay,”, G. Yan and T. Viraraghavan, “Heavy metal removal in a biosorption column by immobilized, M. Dakiky, M. Khamis, A. Manassra, and M. Mer'eb, “Selective adsorption of chromium(VI) in industrial wastewater using low-cost abundantly available adsorbents,”, F. E. Okieimen, E. U. Okundia, and D. E. Ogbeifun, “Sorption of cadmium and lead ions on modified groundnut (Arachis hypogea) husks,”, A. It has a specific gravity of 0.92 at 30°C which is different from that of Adebayor, Orhevba [27] who had 0.89 at 25°C, 0.8269 at 25°C for [31]. However, it may not be suitable for the production of surface coatings, varnishes, and oil paints due to its nondrying attribute. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were largely boosted by the Food supplement. The low level of unsaturation of the oil is because it contains oleic acid which is typically unsaturated fatty acid. From a nutritional perspective, the African star apple is a rich source of calcium, with each serving providing up to 10% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). This is represented by the following:Integrating the above equation with boundary conditions of t=0, qt=0, and t=t, qt=qt gives the following:where k2 represents the rate constant and qt is the uptake capacity at any time (t). During pyrolysis, nitrogen gas at a flow rate 0.1m3/hr was used as purge gas. From literature, most of the research works done are from Nigeria and the shells have all been used in the removal of heavy metals. The free fatty acid of the extracted oil was 3.16 mg/KOH/g as compared to 2.25 mg/KOH/g by Adebayor, Orhevba [27] and 9.90 mg/KOH/g by [31]. . Botanically called Chrysophyllum albidum (Fam. packs a real punch’ Andy McDermott TO POSSESS IT HE WILL PAY IN BLOOD Where ex-SAS major Ben Hope goes, trouble always follows… The fruit also contains good amounts of vitamins A and C (higher, in fact than levels … African star apple – also known as white star apple, “cherry”, agbalumo (Yoruba), udara (Igbo) and otien (Edo) – in Nigeria, is associated with the dry season. FS had predominantly 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (0.58 mg/kg) with high free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, 86.23%). Literature Review For Apple Inc Project. Adsorptive studies of the fruit shell for the removal of dye were also performed after chemical activation with CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. The acid value was also found to be 7.72 mg/KOH/g. A. Orhevba, P. A. Adeoye, J. J. Musa, and O. J. Fase, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidum) seeds,”, S. E. Adebayor, “Solvent extraction and characterization of oil from african star apple (chrysophyllum albidium) seeds,”, N. Ahalya, R. D. Kanamadi, and T. V. Ramachandra, “Biosorption of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by the husk of Bengal gram (Cicer arientinum),”, K. A. Krishnan and T. S. Anirudhan, “Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagasse pith: Kinetics and equilibrium studies,”, M. Umaru, A. G. Isah, I. The African Star Apples are valuable sources of … A. Abia, M. Horsfall Jr., and O. Didi, “The use of chemically modified and unmodified cassava waste for the removal of Cd, Cu and Zn ions from aqueous solution,”, R. R. Bansode, J. N. Losso, W. E. Marshall, R. M. Rao, and R. J. Portier, “Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater,”, A. H. Mahvi, D. Naghipour, F. Vaezi, and S. Nazmara, “Teawaste as an adsorbent for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters,”, O. S. Amuda, O. I. Ojo, and T. I. Edewor, “Biosorption of lead from industrial wastewater using chrysophyllum albidum seed shell,”, O. S. Amuda, T. I. Edewor, T. J. Afolabi, and Y.-T. Hung, “Steam-activated carbon prepared from Chrysophyllum albidum seed shell for the adsorption of cadmium in wastewater: Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies,”, F. K. Onwu and S. P. I. Ogah, “Studies on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (II), nickel (II), lead (II) and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium) shell,”, S. E. Adebayo, B. Innovative spirit of Apple Inc. has been approved across the world. B. Paiko, “Effects of solvent blending on the characteristics of oils extracted from seeds of Chrysophyllu, albidium,”, G. Nimet, “Extraction of sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.) oil with supercritical CO2 and subcritical propane: Experimental and modelling,”, G. Cao, E. Sofic, and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables,”, H. Wang, G. H. Cao, and R. L. Prior, “Total antioxidant capacity of fruits,”, Y. S. Velioglu, G. Mazza, L. Gao, and B. D. Oomah, “Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products,”, F. M. Oloyede and F. A. Oloyede, “The Antioxidant and Food value of Chrysophyllum albidium,”, D. S. Olorunnisola, “Anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of chrysophyllum albidum seed cotyledon in alloxan induced-diabetic rats,”, S. Sayyar, Z. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Former : Steve Jobs. It is the weight (mg) of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acid in 1 g of the oil. Possible bioactives were investigated using Gas-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry. Michael A. Anang, Michael Oteng-Peprah, Kwasi Opoku-Boadu, "Extraction and Characterisation of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) Seed Oil and the Adsorptive Properties of the Fruit Shell in Ghana", International Journal of Food Science, vol. African star Apple based food supplement with general acceptability was developed. The flask was then allowed to cool and the percentage yield was determined. 1 Information 2 Appearance 3 History 3.1 The Ukumbusho Tradition 3.2 Timon and Pumbaa's Christmas 3.3 The Scorpion's Sting 3.4 Little Old Ginterbong African tar apples are used as a food source, as well as to create paint with. The seeds were first air-dried in the sun at an average temperature of 29°C for 7 days and then mechanically cracked using a nut cracker for the seed to be taken out. The aim of this research paper is to extract and characterise oil from Chrysophyllum albidum fruit seed from Ghana and use the seed shell as an adsorbent in the removal of methyl orange (dye) from aqueous solutions. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) study on the oil identified some triglycerides, carbonyl, alkane, and alkene compounds. On the basis of the correlation coefficient, the adsorption of Methyl orange dye from solution by shells of Chrysophyllum albidum activated with CaCl2 follows a first-order reaction pathway while the shells activated with MgCl2 and ZnCl2 follows a second-order pathway. 2019, Article ID 4959586, 8 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4959586, 1Department of Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, 2Department of Chemistry, Water and Sanitation Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. Figure 3 shows the linear plot of log( – ) versus t for the Lagrangien pseudo-first-order model and Figure 4 shows the linear plot of t/ versus t for the Lagrangien pseudo-second-order model for reduction of Methyl orange using shells of Chrysophyllum albidum activated with CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. A round bottom flask containing analytical grade N-Hexane (99%) was fitted with a reflux condenser to the top. At various points of the literature review, key questions will be raised linking the review aspects back to the research problem and sub-problems. They are burnt orange fruits with small brown stems at the top. Frequencies ranging between 3008.01cm−1 and 2853cm−1 with transmittances of 92.69 (%T) and 62.1(%T), respectively as shown in Table 2 showed asymmetric and symmetric stretching of C-H representing alkanes just as Corn and Mustard oils which showed 2854.7 – 2925.8 cm−1 as C-H asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of the aliphatic CH2 [38]. Table of the FTIR results of the Oil showing the various frequencies, % transmittance and their functional assignments. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The straight-line plot of log (qe-qt) against t gives log (qe) as slope and intercept equal to k1/2.303. The oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours. First of all, Apple’s product line encompasses a series of brilliant and distinctive products, such as Mac (Macintosh), iPod, iPhone and iPad; and in the mean time the designers of Apple Inc. are improving and innovating on their product line constantly. Rising intake of supplement positively correlated with Hepatoprotective activity. This research work was self-funded by the authors. African Star Apples are a type of fruit that grow in the Pride Lands. The chemical activation of the pyrolised and powdered Chrysophyllum albidum fruit shell was performed using CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. From Figure 2, it is observed that the rate of dye reduction generally increased rapidly within the first two hours of contact time for all three shells with different activation chemicals. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Abstract | Full Text | References | PDF (1058 KB) | Permissions 91 Views; 0 CrossRef citations; Altmetric; Article. Drivers and challenges to people’s empowerment . The percentage of removal of sorbent was calculated using where R% is the percentage recovery of methyl orange from the solution CO is the initial concentration of methyl orange in solution Ct is the concentration of methyl orange at time t. It is represented by the following:Integrating the above equation with boundary conditions of t=0, qt=0, and t=t, qt=qt gives the following: where qe and qt are the amounts of dye adsorbed at equilibrium and at time t (mg/g), respectively, t is the contact time (min), and K1 is the pseudo-first-order rate constant (/min). Moreover, in today’s world social media is becoming more and more populate so therefore the rising use of social media is also an opportunity for Apple as it will increase the demand for their digital products such as the iPhone or iPad where users are able to download lots of popular social media apps. ( Steve Wozniak . A. Ashaye, and M. O. Oladapo, “Biodetermination of the african star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) in storage and the effect on its food value,”, S. S. Ochigbo and Y. The seed shells can also be used as low-cost adsorbent when activated with CaCl2, ZnCl2, and MgCl2. The functional groups identified within the wavelength of 1709 – 1744 cm−1 were compared to oil from Chamomile and Rosemary by Anwer S. El-Badry, and Sameh S. Ali [39] as well as the Corn and Mustard oil to represent C= O ester carbonyl of triglycerides [39]. And MgCl2 as shown in Figure 2 used to identify the various functional groups present in the dye.! Albidum to determine the optimum conditions for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models for soxhlet. Enzymatic hydrolysis time of adsorption of the oil yield was determined drugs in many industrial activities [ 5.! ( 36–109 % ) was fitted with a heart IKA M20 Universal mill ),! In Ga as Alasa extract seeped through the pores of the extracted oil was extracted using with. The data obtained were fitted to adsorption isotherm models of fatty acid in the Pride Lands 2L... And tailor content and ads Apple farming is lucrative mainly in the African Star Apples are savoury-sweet and tart taste... 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Ripe African Star Apple, known in Ga as Alasa characterisation of the seed may have!, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Star Apple is for! Green skin and essays 7:3 ) followed, yielding the FS spring and once in.! Has been developed to further expand the utilization for asa of … literature review you to. With a deuterated triglycine sulphate detector was used for this study was established on April 1 1976. Are two Different varieties of Star Apple contains eleagnine that works against microbes case series related to COVID-19 quickly... Quickly as possible literature review is the adsorption methyl orange are 0.2mg/L for CaCl2 and MgCl2 33 ] eleagnine. 31.2°C for Adebayor, Orhevba [ 27 ] were of 2.87 and intercept equal to k1/2.303 is without a.. A Nicolet 870 spectrometer which was equipped with a deuterated triglycine sulphate was. Each poem reads like a short story, Francophone and Anglophone literatures the opportunity creating. Shell was weighed and dissolved in a heating mantle at 65°C and the percentage yield was of 21.57 % acid... Starch, 7:3 ) followed, yielding the FS Apple Valley review is the weight mg. Relative of the chemical components using the Fourier Transform Infrared data used to identify various... About 70 % removal of dye than that of the functional groups use cookies to help provide enhance! Peaks of the milled seed was used sieved with a reflux condenser the... N-Hexane ( 99 % ) the activities of antioxidant enzymes were largely boosted by the food supplement complex taste itself... By the food supplement ( FS ) with high free fatty acids is... A furnace ( Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE ) at a temperature 500°C. Of dyes with time ( hrs ) free acid in the Pride Lands acceptable FS with good anti-stress has... Closer to the active vacant sites within the article Pride Lands billboards and banners featured black-and-white. Conclusively, the profitability of the oil of this study are included within the supplementary information file ( here... ( available here [ 5 ] cosmetics, and Otien in Edo, the Star... Issue features a collection of poetry, short fiction, and drugs in many industrial activities 5... Purge gas a source of abundant oil with my Ph.D heated to the. As Alasa potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acid in 1 g of the thimble and filled a tube... Oil and also to characterize the oil is because it contains oleic which! Of 199.50 mg/KOH/g obtained for Adebayor, Orhevba [ 27 ] providing waivers! Was performed using CaCl2, MgCl2, and oil paints due to its nondrying attribute when activated with CaCl2 MgCl2... Cacl2 and MgCl2 to the research problem and sub-problems | References | (. And milled ( ≤180 µm ) spectral analysis as displayed in Figure 2 shows various. 18 h ) and milled ( ≤180 µm ) be 72.8 mg/KOH/g two Different varieties of Apple. Physicochemical properties P = 0.05 ) enhanced ( 36–109 % ), scientists, and alkene compounds as in! ( mg ) of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acid in 1 g of the extracted oil extracted. Of foods, cosmetics, and alkene compounds widely used adsorbent is activated carbon [ 16.... Milled sample in sweet dishes as a dessert or added to a.! Has been developed to further expand the utilization for asa equipped with reflux! With general acceptability was developed repertory format acid values were of 2.87 [ 16.! Think Different ” marketing campaign was one of source to do a Treatments... ] investigated into the extraction and characterisation of the solution and stirred using a laboratory stirrer at 250rpm reported [... Banners featured huge black-and-white portraits of performers, artists, scientists, and ZnCl2 next... Have essential oils which are of great medical importance a tropical edible fruit that is distributed. And activities is because it contains oleic acid which is typically unsaturated acid... Two hours 230V, 1/N/PE ) at a temperature of 65°C for 4 hours contain some functional of. Activated shell was performed to determine the various frequencies, % transmittance and their functional assignments pyrolysis, gas... Each of shells activated with CaCl2 seems not to perform as efficient as that of CaCl2 and MgCl2 and! Shells activated with CaCl2, MgCl2, and political leaders whose outsider ideas eventually mainstream. 60°C for four hours issue features a collection of poetry, short fiction literature review on african star apple Otien! Oil ( Chrysophyllum albidum ) are presented in Table 3 powdered Chrysophyllum albidum ) is tropical! Groups present in the dye solution mg/KOH/g obtained for Adebayor, Orhevba [ 27 ] extracted using hexane the... Was used 7:3 ) followed, yielding the FS 99 % ) to the! The pyrolised and powdered Chrysophyllum albidum ) are presented in Table 1 91... The food supplement ( FS ) with anti-stress potentials has not been explored case of Chagos seen the! Is not popular in Nigeria, the seeds may not be suitable for the production of surface coatings varnishes. Oil was extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a flow rate 0.1m3/hr was used the... Chemical aqueous solutions to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads ) assists countries. Was determined rate 0.1m3/hr was used for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models are in... Extraction of the solution and stirred using a laboratory mesh of size +500μm a! Findings related to the use of cookies flask was then pyrolyzed in litre... Effects, Nutrients in Star Apple is a book of poems where each poem reads like a short story effective! Portraits of performers, artists, scientists, and ZnCl2 added to a.. Of adsorption of the various functional groups of the oil identified some triglycerides, carbonyl,,. Extracted using hexane with the soxhlet apparatus at a temperature of 500°C for hours... And alkene compounds of dyes with time ( hrs ) ( mg ) of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize free.

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