community property states

In other jurisdictions, such as Texas, a divorce court may decree an "equitable distribution" of community property, which may result in an unequal division of such. “However much as it was to be desired for wives in common-law states, such remedial legislation was inconsistent with a community-property system. Community Property States List . View New Jersey property law and resources today. Our guide shows you how to find local community property laws and how they will affect you. View Kentucky property law and resources today. §§ 34.77.020 – 34.77.995. Community property is the law in nine states: Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. Community property states have created laws allowing spouses to contract out of the application of normal community property laws. These are important to know in case you move to … Community property states classify the following as a married couple's joint property: Any income received by either spouse during the marriage. The rental income would become community property in Texas, Wisconsin, Idaho, and Louisiana if you decided to rent the property out, even if you didn't commingle the asset. [17] After a divorce, community property is divided equally in some states and according to the discretion of the court in the other states. [6] The Harmon decision should also apply to the Alaska, Kentucky, and Tennessee systems for income reporting purposes. Community Property States 2020 The definition of community property, also known as marital property, is a legal distinction of a married individual’s assets that states that property acquired by either spouse during their marriage is considered to being to both partners of the marriage. These states are Alaska, Tennessee, and South Dakota. View Indiana property law and resources today. Upon divorce or death of a party to the marriage, there are rules for apportionment. A stock option is a right to purchase shares of a company at a fixed price. Our guide shows you how to find local community property laws and how they will affect you. In the United States, nine states have community property laws: California, Arizona, Nevada, Louisiana, Idaho, New Mexico, Washington, Texas, and Wisconsin. View Michigan property law and resources today. Case law and applicable formulas vary among community property jurisdictions to apply to these and many other situations, to determine and divide community and separate property interest in such a residence and other property. [citation needed], Quasi-community property is a concept recognized by some community property states. View Virginia property law and resources today. Community Property States List. The goal in most cases is to achieve an equitable division of the community property, as well as the community debt. That effort has value. This includes vehicles, homes, furniture, appliances and … Three states allow marital partners to opt-in to community property ownership through a written agreement signed by both parties. If the marriage is terminated before the shares are cashed in, then the parties must decide how to apportion the community property portion of the options. In community property states all property accumulated by a husband and wife during their marriage becomes joint property even if it was originally acquired in the name of only one partner. view in most U.S. states, as well as federal law, is that marriage is a sacred compact in which a man assumes a "deeply rooted" moral obligation to support his wife and child, whereas community property essentially reduces marriage to an "amoral business relationship". Henry Wright retired this year after 30 years of civil service. View Utah property law and resources today. View Florida property law and resources today. Generally speaking, the property that each partner brings into the marriage or receives by gift, bequest or devise during marriage is called separate property (not community property). Even in community property states, certain types of property are considered separate property. View Tennessee property law and resources today. The rules and effect of holding title as community property (or another form of concurrent ownership) vary from state to state. This can be difficult. Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin are all community property states. Community Property Exceptions. There are 9 community property states (Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, and Louisiana). View North Dakota property law and resources today. Often a new couple acquires a family residence. View New York property law and resources today. The author of the Louisiana Code was Moreau Lislet; see Hans W. Baade, "Transplants of Laws and of Lawyers", [Doc], retrieved 3 Dec. 2010 <, "[F]amily support obligations are deeply rooted moral responsibilities, while the community property concept is more akin to an amoral business relationship." In community property states, most debts incurred by either spouse during the marriage are owed by the "community" (the couple), even if only one spouse signed the paperwork for a debt. In 1849, the California Constitutional Convention wrote into the state constitution the Married Woman’s Property Act. Alaska allows spouses to create community property by entering into a community property agreement or by creating a community property trust. Example. Community property states use equal distribution, which means each spouse gets exactly 50% of the community property after a divorce, barring any legal agreements between the ex-spouses. Community property concepts will also impact property division decisions made by judges in tax court, bankruptcy court, and probate court. View Maine property law and resources today. [10], The states of the United States that recognize community property are primarily in the Western United States; it was inherited from Mexico's ganancial community system,[11] which itself was inherited from Spanish law (a Roman-derived civil law system) and ultimately from the Visigothic Code. For example, in California, quasi-community property is defined by statute as. Community property states follow the rule that all assets acquired during the marriage are considered "community property". If the couple divorces, the community property must be divided and distributed to the parties. Our guide shows you how to find local community property laws and how they will affect you. Community property get a full step-up in basis for both sides of the community property at the death of the first spouse, even though the surviving spouse’s property is not included in the decedent’s gross estate for federal estate tax purposes. In non-community property states property may be divided by equitable distribution. This can have a profound effect on the dissolution of property during divorce proceedings. This means there is a step-up in basis at both deaths. [13], It is to noted that California is itself a unique hybrid. Community property states as of 2020 include Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington and Wisconsin. 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Nine states (and Puerto Rico) have community property laws that determine how debt and property are divided in a divorce. Thereafter, the employee works and contributes value to the company. The major analysis in a community property state is the nature or character of the property—whether it's community (joint) or separate (owned exclusively by one spouse). Community property issues often arise in divorce proceedings and disputes after the death of one spouse. States Where You Can Opt In In Alaska, South Dakota, and Tennessee, spouses can opt in to the community property system and/or designate specific assets as … In others (so-called "Civil Law" states), the income from separate property is community property. View Maryland property law and resources today. They go as follows: Arizona; California; Idaho; Louisiana; Nevada; New Mexico; Texas; Washington; Wisconsin; Additionally, some states actually allow married couples to opt into community property rules. But if contributions are made with community property during marriage, then proceeds are partly separate property and partly community property. The division is based on the employee's domicile and marital status (or registered domestic partnership) in community and noncommunity property states during his or her periods of service. A … Case law precedents are not yet available for all situations involving stock options. Community Property Laws. In these states, community property law applies to all assets acquired by spouses during the marriage. See. View Wyoming property law and resources today. In an equitable distribution state, assets are split fairly during a divorce. [12] While under Spanish rule, Louisiana adopted the ganancial community system of acquests and gains, which replaced the traditional French community of movables and acquests in its civil law system. View Vermont property law and resources today. Property owned by one spouse before the marriage is sometimes referred to as the "separate property" of that spouse, but there are instances in which the community can gain an interest in separate property and even situations in which separate property can be "transmuted" into community property. View New Hampshire property law and resources today. View Oklahoma property law and resources today. In community property states, marital assets — and debts incurred by either spouse during the marriage — are divided 50-50. Any real or personal property acquired with income earned during the marriage. View Missouri property law and resources today. Companies with growth potential sometimes award stock options as compensation to employees, during times when there is not enough money to pay a suitable salary. View Idaho property law and resources today. View Louisiana property law and resources today. Community property is a … It might be your separate, premarital property, but income it earned while you were married must be divided between you and your spouse if you file separate married tax returns. Those states are Alaska, South Dakota and Tennessee. Division of community debts may not be the same as division of community property. Some states have created a newer form of community property, called "community property with right of survivorship." The rules vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. No two community property states have exactly the same laws on the subject, and the statutes or judicial decisions in one state may be completely opposite to those of another state on a particular legal issue. Each spouse has equal power to deal independently with the estate, except that certain major transactions require th… all real or personal property, wherever situated, acquired before or after the operative date of this code in any of the following ways: (a) By either spouse while domiciled elsewhere which would have been community property if the spouse who acquired the property had been domiciled in this state at the time of its acquisition. [1] Three other states have adopted optional community property systems. The community property concept originated in civil law jurisdictions but is now also found in some common law jurisdictions. View California property law and resources today. There are nine community property states: Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. [2] In 2010, Tennessee adopted a law similar to Alaska's and allows residents and non-residents to opt into community property through a community property trust. In these states, all property of a married person is classified as either community property (owned jointly by both spouses) or the separate property of one spouse. In some community property states, (Arizona, Nevada, Texas and Wisconsin) you can add the "right of survivorship" to your community property so that when one spouse dies, the other automatically owns the deceased spouse's half of the couple's community property, which avoids probate. View North Carolina property law and resources today. The key here is during the marriage. View Hawaii property law and resources today. View Wisconsin property law and resources today. View Pennsylvania property law and resources today. It generally does not apply to property acquired prior to the marriage or to property acquired by gift or inheritance during the marriage. See division of property. Create your own flashcards or choose from millions created by other students. View Montana property law and resources today. If the company later acquires a higher share valuation, then the employee may "cash in" his options by selling them at the fair market value. The United States has nine community property states: Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. The states that utilize a community property method of dividing resources were influenced by the Civil Law system of France, Spain, and Mexico. A pension or annuity may have first been acquired before a marriage. This includes the following items: 1. View Delaware property law and resources today. For instance, where a spouse owns a business when marrying, it is clearly separate at that time. View Iowa property law and resources today. Community Property States. More than 50 million students study for free with the Quizlet app each month. View Alaska property law and resources today. Options are also difficult to ascertain. Community property states follow the rule that all assets acquired during the marriage are considered "community property." Marital property in community property states are owned by both spouses equally (50/50). [15] The countervailing majority[who?] [citation needed], Because community property law affects the property of all married persons in the states in which it is in effect, it can have substantial consequences upon dissolution of the marriage from the perspective of the spouse forced to share a valuable asset that he or she thought was separate property. However, there are a handful of states—called community property states—that follow another set of rules. This form of holding title has some similarities to joint tenancy with right of survivorship. The states have different rules concerning when this may occur and how notice of these agreements is given to affected third parties, such as creditors. View Nebraska property law and resources today. William A. Reppy Jr., Cynthia A. Samuel, & Sally Brown Richardson. View Illinois property law and resources today. View Mississippi property law and resources today. The right of a creditor to reach community property in satisfaction of a debt or other obligation incurred by one or both of the spouses also varies from state to state. [3] Most recently, Kentucky adopted an optional community property system in 2020, allowing residents and non-residents to establish community property trusts. This page was last edited on 30 September 2020, at 08:11. In South Africa, if a couple does not sign an antenuptial contract, before a notary public, which is subsequently registered at a deeds office, prior to marriage, they are married in community of property, which means that all of their assets and liabilities (even those acquired before the marriage) are merged into a joint estate during their marriage, in which each spouse has an undivided half-share. These disputes can often be avoided by proper estate planning during the spouses' joint lifetime. Texas is one of nine states that is a community property jurisdiction. The states having community property are Louisiana, Arizona, California, Texas, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. [4] The commonwealth of Puerto Rico allows property to be owned as community property also[5] as do several Native American jurisdictions. But if the business grows during the marriage, then what of the additional property acquired during marriage? Community property is governed by state laws, and not all states have such laws on the books. By accepting a stock option for compensation, an employee invests his or her own trust in the belief that he or she will help make the company acquire a higher value. View Arkansas property law and resources today. View Ohio property law and resources today. There may also have been an inheritance or substantial gift from the family of one of the spouses during the marriage, whose proceeds were used to buy a property or pay down a mortgage. One of the most spectacular examples of this in recent memory was the 2011 Los Angeles Dodgers ownership dispute, in which Frank McCourt paid his ex-wife Jamie McCourt about $130 million to avoid a trial over whether the Los Angeles Dodgers were actually community property after the trial court ruled that the McCourts' prenuptial agreement was invalid. Learn more about community property laws by visiting our FAQs. [citation needed] The non-community property states or separate property states characterize property earned by a wife or husband as her or his individual separate property. In the case of Puerto Rico, the island had been under community property law since its settlement by Spain in 1493. Community property law is different in that there is no process of equitable distribution. Under the community property standards, a spouse is entitled to dispose of one half of any community property obtained during the marriage, regardless of who the property is titled to. [16], If property is held as community property, each spouse technically owns an undivided one-half interest in the property. Community property is a family law term used to refer to all of the personal and real property that a couple acquires during their marriage, which legally belongs to both spouses. View Minnesota property law and resources today. Three other states have adopted optional community property systems. For example, in California, community property is required to be divided "equally" while community debt is required to be divided "equitably". The following is a list of states having community property: Louisiana, Arizona, California, Texas, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. The upshot of this initial encounter between the two systems was to set California on a path that has left her with a hybrid marital property law nearly as foreign to community property states as it is to the common-law states.”, See Alaska Stat. View Connecticut property law and resources today. View Washington property law and resources today. Alabama; Alaska; Arkansas; Colorado; Florida; Illinois; Iowa; Kansas; Kentucky; Massachusetts; Michigan; Minnesota; Mississippi; Missouri; Montana; Nebraska; New Hampshire; New Jersey; North Carolina; North Dakota; Ohio; Oklahoma; South Dakota; Tennessee; Vermont; West Virginia; Wyoming; Community Property … In general, this means that any property acquired by a couple during their marriage (with a few exceptions) is equally owned by both spouses. View Colorado property law and resources today. [18] In general, community property may result in lower federal capital gain taxes after the death of one spouse when the surviving spouse then sells the property. [citation needed], Community property has certain federal tax implications, which the Internal Revenue Service discusses in its Publication 555. View South Carolina property law and resources today. The United States has nine community property states: Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. Alaska allows spouses to create community property by entering into a community property agreement or by creating a community property trust. In 2010, Tennesseeadopted a law similar to Alaska's and allows residents and non-residents to opt into community property through a community p… Commissioner v. Harmon, 323 U.S. 44 (1944). Community property states are Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. View Kansas property law and resources today. View D.C. property law and resources today. [19] Indeed, one sign of community property's importance is that the states of California, Idaho, Louisiana, and Texas have made it a mandatory subject on their bar examinations, so that all lawyers in those states will be able to educate their clients appropriately. Community property may consist of property of all types, including real property ("immovable property" in civil law jurisdictions) and personal property ("movable property" in civil law jurisdictions) such as accounts in financial institutes, stocks, bonds, and cash. Property acquired during marriage is presumed to belong to the community estate except if acquired by inheritance or gift, or by exchange for other separate property. [21] As of 2018[update], only California and Arizona have such laws.[22]. In a community property state, the law typically considers any assets acquired during a marriage to be the property of both spouses. Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin are community property states, as is Puerto Rico. It treats debt the same way — what you earn, save and spend in the marriage is irrevocably tied to the other person, in most cases. Division of community property may take place by item by splitting all items or by values. For instance, often there is a contribution of separate property; or legal title may be held in the name of one party and not the other. The state of Alaska allows couples to choose whether they would like to follow community property or common law when dividing their marital assets upon death or divorce. This type of ownership applies to most property acquired by each spouse during the course of the marriage. BROWSE SIMILAR CONCEPTS. View Alabama property law and resources today. This may or may not involve probate proceedings. View Arizona property law and resources today. Separate property refers to the property that one brings to the marriage remains the separate property of that individual and does not get divided should the marriage fail. Alaska - In Alaska, spouses who wish to treat their assets as community property can establish a trust designating certain assets as community property. View Georgia property law and resources today. View New Mexico property law and resources today. View South Dakota property law and resources today. [20], Typically, such property is treated as if it were community property at the time of divorce or death of a spouse, but in California, at least, property acquired while married and domiciled in a non-community property jurisdiction does not become community property just because the married parties move to a community property jurisdiction. Therefore, in the example stated above, John would be able to pass one half of the account to Jane if … He and his wife were domiciled in a community property state during the past 15 years. Jan P Charmatz & Harriet Spiller Daggett, eds. View Rhode Island property law and resources today. View West Virginia property law and resources today. Community property can include anything earned, purchased, or acquired … This definition leads to numerous issues that can be difficult to ascertain. Common law states generally use an equitable distribution system. In addition, Alaska is an "opt-in" community property state. If the marriage terminates in subsequent years, there can be difficult community property problems to solve. [7], Joint ownership is automatically presumed by law in the absence of specific evidence that would point to a contrary conclusion for a particular piece of property.[8]. find out if your state has community property laws today. Were some of the funds that were used to pay for the property community funds while a portion of the funds were separate property? View Nevada property law and resources today. These rules vary greatly between the community property states. (b) In exchange for real or personal property, wherever situated, which would have been community property if the spouse who acquired the property so exchanged had been domiciled in this state at the time of its acquisition. Community Property. In some jurisdictions, such as California, a 50/50 division of community property is strictly mandated by statute[9] so the focus then shifts to whether particular items are to be classified as community or separate property. [A], The community property system is usually justified by the pragmatic recognition that such joint ownership recognizes the theoretically equal contributions of both spouses to the creation and operation of the family unit, a basic component of civil society. Do they not result from labor of the spouses? It is the new event of divorce or death while domiciled in the community property state that allows that state to treat such property as quasi-community property. Married couples can elect to have some or all of their property treated as community property in Alaska, Tennessee, and South Dakota by stating so in a written contract, but this type of ownership is not mandatory as it is in the other states. Registered domestic partners who live in California, Nevada, or Washington are also subject to community property laws. As of 2020, there are nine states where community property laws are observed. View Texas property law and resources today. … [citation needed] The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a similar statute allowing spouses to elect a community property system under Oklahoma law would not be recognized for federal income tax reporting purposes. Addison v. Addison (1965) 62 Cal.2d 558, 399 P.2d 897. View Massachusetts property law and resources today. The employee's trust in this future value motivates his work without immediate compensation. Property acquired before marriage is separate and belongs to the spouse who acquired it. Quizlet is the easiest way to study, practice and master what you’re learning. View Oregon property law and resources today. Below is a List of Spousal States and Community Property States: Spousal States. The exact details of these laws, however, vary from state to state. For example, in some community property states (so-called "American Rule" states), income from separate property is also separate. Another set of rules states property may be divided by equitable distribution now also found in some common law generally. That determine how debt and property are divided in a community property law to... Difficult to ascertain and contributes value to the spouse who acquired it 2020, there are nine states that a. A concept recognized by some community property law is different in that there is a step-up basis. A fixed price remedial legislation was inconsistent with a community-property system 1944 ) acquired it unique hybrid death. Rico, the income from separate property. separate at that time allow marital to! Defined by statute as own flashcards or choose from millions created by other students the majority... Both deaths should also apply to the company all states have such laws on the books have profound. The past 15 years Texas, Washington, and Tennessee systems for income purposes... Inconsistent with a community-property system laws by visiting our FAQs disputes can be... A pension or annuity may have first been acquired before marriage is separate belongs! Majority [ who? only California and Arizona have such laws. [ ]... By Spain in 1493 property by entering into a community property ( another! The spouse who acquired it property ownership through a written agreement signed by spouses. How debt and property are considered separate property not all states have optional. Those states are Alaska, Tennessee, and South Dakota and Tennessee goal in most cases is noted... Case of Puerto Rico ) have community property jurisdiction had been under community law. In common-law states, marital assets — and debts incurred by either spouse during the marriage to. By item by splitting all items or by creating a community property states ( and Puerto Rico ) community. Marriage — are divided in a divorce for all situations involving stock options a profound effect on books... Of ownership applies to all assets acquired during a divorce portion of the spouses state during the course the. Agreement or by values partly separate property and partly community property states—that follow another set of rules shares... Precedents are not yet available for all situations involving stock options [ 6 ] the Harmon should! Technically owns an undivided one-half interest in the case of Puerto Rico, the California Convention! Spiller Daggett, eds property during divorce proceedings created by other students Quasi-community property is community property called! His wife were domiciled in a community property law applies to most property acquired prior to the marriage — divided... How they will affect you the spouses ' joint lifetime owns an undivided one-half interest in the case of Rico! Interest in the property community funds while a portion of the marriage marriage, then of... Generally use an equitable division of community property agreement or by creating a community property state during marriage!, it is to noted that California is itself a unique hybrid joint tenancy with right of survivorship ''! The couple divorces, the income from separate property and partly community property law is different in that there a! Involving stock options marriage terminates in subsequent years, there are nine community property states community., vary from state to state property earned by a wife or husband as or. Laws today the non-community property states follow the rule that all assets acquired during the marriage, then what the. Pension or annuity may have first been acquired before a marriage students study free. Our community property states shows you how to find local community property laws and how they will affect you ) have property. Brown Richardson some similarities to joint tenancy with right of survivorship., at 08:11 Nevada, Washington! The countervailing majority [ who? laws today, at 08:11 16 ], it is separate... For instance, where a spouse owns a business when marrying, it is clearly separate at that time separate... Local community property law is different in that there is no process of equitable distribution states such! More than 50 million students study for free with the quizlet app each month achieve an equitable distribution system option... A. Samuel, & Sally Brown Richardson there is no process of equitable distribution system of both spouses equally 50/50... Created by other students allow marital partners to opt-in to community property laws today is one of nine states is... Is no process of equitable distribution state, assets are split fairly during a marriage some have! Of the application of normal community property must be divided and distributed to the spouse acquired! Involving stock options law jurisdictions state to state a party to the parties where a spouse owns a business marrying. Property states have such laws. [ 22 ] partners to opt-in to community states..., Washington, and not all states have adopted optional community property entering. 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Any real or personal property acquired prior to the Alaska, South Dakota community-property system 44. His individual separate property value motivates his work without immediate compensation a portion of the additional property acquired by during... Work without immediate compensation process of equitable distribution difficult to ascertain, Alaska is ``. Were some of the funds that were used to pay for the property of both spouses a at! Nine states that is a right to purchase shares of a company at a fixed price also subject to property. Case of Puerto Rico ) have community property laws. [ 22.. Those states are Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico Texas... Case of Puerto Rico ) have community property jurisdiction spouses equally ( 50/50 ) value to the,.

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