The first of the long-range bombing raids on the Japanese home islands took place as early as 28 Nov 1944, mainly from the newly constructed air fields in the Mariana Islands. Please refrain from using strong language. The second, which hit Nagasaki on 9 August, killed around 50,000 people. The air attack raid was one of the longest in the history of WWII. site is two fold. American B-24 bombers based on Okinawa, Japan bombed the Omura-Nagasaki area in the Japanese home islands. The XXI Bomber Command missions on Tokyo and surrounding areas in 1945 were as follows. American B-29 bombers attacked the Nakajima factory outside Tokyo, Japan. The bomb that fell on Dejima Wharf failed to explode. Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department estimated 124,711 casualties and 286,358 destroyed buildings and homes. Americans estimated 88,000 killed, 41,000 injured, and 1,000,000 displaced. Tokyo Fire Department estimated 97,000 killed and 125,000 wounded. In Japan, 100 American B-29 bombers conducted a raid on the Nakajima aircraft factory near Tokyo, while 15 B-29 bombers mined waters off Kure and Hiroshima. During the night of 24-25 Feb, 174 American B-29 bombers dropped incendiary bombs on Tokyo, Japan and destroyed about 3 square kilometers of the city, or about 28,000 buildings. 67 Japanese Cities Firebombed in World War II While watching the movie The Fog of War , which is Robert S. McNamara's commentary about his involvement in, among other things, World War II and the Vietnamese War, I was shocked to hear him say that before the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 , under the command of General Curtis LeMay, United States B-29 â¦ Alison Bert (@AlisonBert) is Editor-in-Chief of Elsevier Connect. 7 Apr: 101 B-29 bombers attacked the Nakajima aircraft factory. Both he and Dr. Karacas are Japan scholars who have lived in Japan and studied at Japanese universities. During the day, 5 American P-47 fighters attacked Yanagawa, Japan while 94 American P-51 fighters based in Iwo Jima attacked Kameyama, Kiyosu, Komaki, Okazaki, Suzuko, and Akenogahara. But while Fedman is a historian, Karacas is a geographer. 5 was sunk at its mooring at Akunoura. ", The editorial board of the journal agreed when they selected this for the 2012 Journal of Historical Geography Best Paper Prize Prize. One US B-29 Superfortress bomber attacked Nagasaki, Japan at 1100 hours, having arrived undetected. The Mitsubishi shipyard, the Mitsubishi Steelworks, and the Nagasaki Medical College suffered heavy damage. DRESDEN (OCTOBER 1944-APRIL 1945) â 25,000 deaths. 2 at the rail station killed about 90 people, wounded about 170 people, and severely damaged three passenger cars. This week marks the 75th anniversary of the United States bombing the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. WW2DB site administrators reserve the right to moderate, censor, and/or remove any comment. Stories keeping journal authors in touch with industry developments, support and training, Industry developments, policies and initiatives of interest to our journal editors and editorial board members, Information for reviewers about relevant Elsevier and industry developments, support and training, Showcasing research from Elsevier journals that impact people's lives, Maps reveal how Japan’s cities were destroyed during World War II, 'A cartographic fade to black: mapping the destruction of urban Japan during World War II, 'Mr. In 1938, Japan launched devastating bombing raids on Chongqing â the Kuomintang government's provisional capital at that time. In the previous century, she was a classical guitarist on the music faculty of Syracuse University. 57 American B-29 bombers attacked Nagoya, Japan, while 21 other bombers attacked other Japanese cities. Evidently it had little military value and much cultural significance. An incendiary attack by US B-29 bombers resulted in 95.6 percent destruction of the aluminium-producing city of Toyama, Japan. 400 American B-29 bombers attacked Osaka, Japan. Just weeks before the US dropped the most powerful weapon mankind has ever known, Nagasaki was not even on a list of target cities for the atomic bomb. In the biggest air raid yet over Japan, 820 Superfortress bombers dropped 6,632 tons of high explosive bombs and incendiary bombs on four cities, bringing the total number of Japanese cities incinerated to 56. 3 Apr: 68 B-29 bombers attacked the Koizuimi aircraft factory and Tokyo urban areas. More than 500 American B-29 bombers dropped incendiary bombs on a number of cities on Honshu, Japan. Bombing of Tokyo, (March 9â10, 1945), firebombing raid (codenamed âOperation Meetinghouseâ) by the United States on the capital of Japan during the final stages of World War II, often cited as one of the most destructive acts of war in history, more destructive than the bombing of Dresden, Hiroshima, or â¦ 29 B-29 Superfortress bombers of US 20th Bomb Squadron took off from Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China for Nagasaki, Japan. 2 Apr: More than 100 B-29 bombers attacked the Nakajima aircraft factory. The shortlisted papers were also based on high-quality research in very different contexts: the rise and fall of a department store in London's west end, and the politics of cotton cultivation and climate change in colonial India: Read the press release about the winners here. Dresden is Germanyâs seventh biggest city â¦ The extent of devastation inflicted upon Japan by the American military during World War II is not broadly known, even today. 30 Jul: Fighters attacked airfields, railroads, and tactical targets in the Kobe-Osaka region. 92 American B-29 bombers attacked the Kawanishi aircraft factories near Kobe, Japan. Dresden is Germanyâs seventh biggest city â¦ More than 2,700 people were killed and 8,000 injured. in Chongqing). "The standard of submissions for this newly-established Prize was remarkably high," said Editor-in-Chief Felix Driver, Professor of Human Geography at Royal Holloway, University of London. David Fedman was doing research at Stanford University's Branner Library when he stumbled across some maps that left him confounded. 6 ships were sunk by the attack while another 6 were damaged; many naval mines were also laid in the harbor. 70 American B-29 bombers attacked the arsenal complex near Tokyo, Japan. 525 American B-29 bombers conducted a raid on Tokyo, Japan. The World War II Database is founded and managed by 24 B-24 and 26 B-25 bombers attacked Nagasaki, Japan, dropping 112 tons of bombs starting at about 1120 hours, in three waves. Allied forces conducted many air raids on Japan during World War II, causing extensive destruction to the country's cities and killing between 241,000 and 900,000 people. The most sophisticated German espionage operation in the United States was establishedâand bustedâbefore America even entered the war. A century ago, the airplane and high-altitude photography dramatically changed the way landscapes were seen and understood, Copyright © 2020 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties, Cookies are used by this site. The judges said it made the greatest contribution to the advancement of scholarship in historical geography in 2012, primarily on the basis of the significance and originality of the research. 473 American B-29 bombers destroyed 11 square kilometers of urban areas at Kobe, Japan. The Americans would drop 16,000 tons of napalm and oil bombs during the campaign; vast areas were burned out but 77 B-29 bombers failed to return. Then, âvisual markerâ aircraft swooped low to drop thousands of flares and fire-target markers. Americans estimated 88,000 killed, 41,000 injured, and 1,000,000 displaced. The two Japanese cities that were struck by atomic bombs in World War 2 were Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Most large German cities were extensively firebombed starting in 1942, and almost all large Japanese cities were firebombed during the last six months of World War II. "For us this was the perfect place to feature this work. It shows the extent to which war planners sought out information about the vulnerability and inflammability of Japanese urban spaces. The estimated total number of civilian casualties was over 100,000, and the city was left utterly destroyed. The railroad tracks between Urakami and Nagayo were also damaged. 26 Apr: 464 B-29 bombers attacked Tokyo urban areas south of the Imperial Palace. Sign in to view your account details and order history. This map was produced by geographers in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the US intelligence agency formed during the war that would become the CIA. Cookie Notice Still other maps reveal the extent to which the Air Force went to maximize this destruction. 307 US B-29 bombers devastated a 3-square mile area in Kobe, Japan and caused 15,000 in casualties. "The idea was to surgically take out only those targets. But Fedman said their intention was not to pass moral judgment on those involved but to draw attention to this largely forgotten incendiary campaign. Fedman emailed him scans of the target charts, and Dr. Karacas quickly wrote back that he, too, was intrigued. More than 530 American B-29 bombers attacked various cities in Japan with incendiary bombs. 20 Jul: A B-29 bomber failed to attack the Imperial Palace with a large "Pumpkin bomb". DRESDEN (OCTOBER 1944-APRIL 1945) â 25,000 deaths. The Empire of Japan entered World War II in September 27, 1940, by signing the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy, though, it wasn't until the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, that the US entered the conflict. Tokyo, being the Japanese capital, received a greater share of attention from American bombers. At the beginning of World War II, bombing of cities prior to invasion was an integral part of Nazi Germany's strategy.In the first stages of war, the Germans carried out many bombings of towns and cities in Poland (1939), including the capital Warsaw (also bombed in 1944), with WieluÅ being the first city destroyed by 75%. 11 people were killed and 35 people were wounded. In the time that Vonnegut and others hid underground, the British Bomber Commandâs Blind Illuminatoraircraft had rained explosives and incendiaries over the city. It shows how the Air Force turned its attention to smaller areas after destroying the larger cities with more military and industrial significance. On the night of March 9, 1945, U.S. warplanes launch a new bombing offensive against Japan, dropping 2,000 tons of incendiary bombs on Tokyo over the course of the next 48 hours. Allied naval and land-based tactical air units also attacked Japan during 1945. 101 American B-29 bombers attacked the Nakajima aircraft factory near Tokyo, Japan; this was the first B-29 mission to be escorted by P-51 fighters from Iwo Jima. The Hiro Naval Arsenal in Kure, Japan was destroyed by US B-29 Superfortress bombers. The first bomb, dropped on the city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, resulted in a total death toll of around 140,000. The Nakajima aircraft plant at Ota, Gunma Prefecture, Japan was seriously damaged by American bombing. Sitemap. 68 American B-29 bombers attacked the Koizuimi aircraft factory and the urban areas of Tokyo, Japan. If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website. Even $1 per month will go a long way! "I wanted to know more," he said. 17 Mar: 331 B-29 bombers destroyed 7 square kilometers of Kobe; 8,841 were killed and 650,000 were displaced. All comment submissions will become the property of WW2DB. 5 Jun: 473 B-29 bombers destroyed 11 square kilometers of Kobe urban areas. 13 Apr: More than 300 B-29 bombers attacked military targets in and near Tokyo. ", "Americans tend to focus on the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; as a result of that we have forgotten largely in the public realm the fact that a total of 66 Japanese cities were targeted and destroyed during World War II. Kyoto, Japan and a few other Japanese cities were not bombed purposely during WWII. The US War Department ordered 150 million incendiary bombs, amounting to some 850,000 tons, to be employed over the next twelve months against Japanese industrial targets. 4 Mar: 159 B-29 bombers attacked Tokyo urban areas. 6 American B-24 bombers attacked Japanese shipping between Paramushiru Island and Shimushu Island in the Kurile Islands and the Kataoka Airfield on Paramushiru; this was the first heavy bomber attack against Japan. About 60 American B-29 bombers attacked aircraft factories and arsenals near Tokyo, Japan. The United States adopted a policy of carpet bombing Japanese cities as opposed to precision strikes. The Quebec agreement allowed for the deployment of two atomic bomâ¦ At that moment, Kazumi Yamada, a â¦ In Japan, 464 American B-29 bombers attacked the urban areas of Tokyo, Japan south of the Imperial Palace. 517 American B-29 bombers from the Mariana Islands dropped incendiary bombs on Japan. Copyright Â© 2004-2020 Lava Development, LLC., all rights reserved, More on Bombing of Tokyo and Other Cities, Bombing of Tokyo and Other Cities Photo Gallery, See all 144 photographs of Bombing of Tokyo and Other Cities, B-29 Superfortress: A Comprehensive Registry of the Planes and Their Missions, Whirlwind: The Air War Against Japan 1942-1945. "It's no accident that this essay is published in the Journal of Historical Geography," Fedman said. ww2dbaseIn the spring of 1945, the B-29 Superfortress bombers were transferred to the XXI Bomber Command based at Guam, Mariana Islands. Your IP address will be tracked even if you remain anonymous. With increased scale, intensity, and frequency, the bombing campaign began to rain considerable destruction on Japanese cities. During the first years of the Pacific War these attacks were limited to the Doolittle Raid in April 1942 and small-scale raids on military positions in the Kuril Islands from mid-1943. On August 6, 1945, at 8.15 am, the Enola Gay, an American B-29 bomber plane, dropped a 16-kiloton atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. A Japanese aircraft made the first aerial ramming attempt at an American bomber. 464 American B-29 bombers conducted a raid on Tokyo, Japan. The nature of total warfare that these maps reveal often leads people to ask whether all this destruction was necessary or ethical. [pullquote align="right"]It neatly reveals the doctrine of precision bombing ...[/pullquote], "It neatly reveals the doctrine of precision bombing — high altitude strategic bombing of military and industrial targets," explained Fedman, a doctoral candidate in history at Stanford who studies Japan's cartographic history. Over 60 cities in Japan were subjected to bombings, many repeatedly. If so, please consider supporting us on Patreon. The events of August 6 and August 9 were the first instances of atomic bombs used against humans, killing tens of thousands of people, obliterating the cities, and contributing to the end of World War II. Although World War II had ended in Europe, it was still continuing in the Pacific theater. 331 US B-29 bombers destroyed 7 square kilometers of Kobe, Japan; 8,841 were killed and 650,000 were displaced. The essay traces the history, production and uses of maps created by the US government during World War II as part of the programs of aerial bombing in Japan. The city of Kobe, Japan, also suffered from American bombing. Themes include: Read more on the journal home page, and visit the Geography, Planning and Development portal to access articles online. 24 May: 520 B-29 bombers attacked urban and industrial areas south of the Imperial Palace. ww2dbaseTokyo was not the only Japanese city targeted by American bombing in 1945. Burma Railway construction Japanese soldiers move through the destroyed railway station. Cookie Settings, Terms and Conditions Some of these bombs contained napalm, and others a jellied-petroleum formula. Second, it is to showcase Most of its building were made of wood and they blazed instantly. This technique makes use of small incendiary bombs (possibly delivered by a cluster bomb such as the Molotov bread basket  ). The first B-29 bombing raid against Tokyo, Japan from Tinian in the Mariana Islands took place; 88 American aircraft participated in this mission. American B-25 bombers from Okinawa conducted a raid on Tokyo, Japan, while 454 B-29 bombers (escorted by 101 P-51 fighters) firebombed Yokohama, Japan. Consumer culture, property speculation and department store demise: the rise and fall of Bourne and Hollingsworth on London's Oxford Street, Cotton, climate and colonialism in Dharwar, western India, 1840–1880, Geography, Planning and Development portal, How aerial photography altered the way we perceive environmental change, The geographies of places and environments in the past, The dynamics of place, space and landscape, Historiography and philosophy of historical geography, Methodological challenges and problems in historical geography. 119 American B-29 bombers attacked the port and urban areas of Tokyo, Japan. On March 10, 1945, 16 square miles (41 square kilometers) of Tokyo were obliterated in the fires started by incendiary bombs. 19 Jul: 27 B-29 bombers laid naval mines in several areas including waters near Kobe. In the Pacific War, the Japanese bombed civilian populations throughout the war (e.g. 272 B-29 Superfortress bombers struck Hamamatsu, Japan. They mainly targeted the munitions factories and the Mitsubishi shipyard. American aviators reported the presence of barrage balloons 12,000 feet above Hitachi, Japan. Japanese fighters shot down 5 bombers, while 4 others received damage and had to ditch or crash land. For years debate has raged over whether the US was right to drop two atomic bombs on Japan during the final weeks of the Second World War. After sundown, US 20th Air Force launched 27 B-29 Superfortress bombers to mine waters off Japan and Korea, 127 B-29 bombers to attack Fukui, 126 B-29 bombers to attack Hitachi, 91 B-29 bombers to attack Choshi, 126 B-29 bombers to attack Okazaki, and 83 B-29 bombers to attack the Nippon oil plant at Amagasaki; only 3 B-29 bombers were lost by the US 20th Air Force during this night. "What's really intriguing … is how you get from the precise dots of the target maps to these huge swaths of destruction that encompassed whole cities. "We want our paper to stimulate a broader discussion of a topic we think not a lot people know or think about. 'A cartographic fade to black: mapping the destruction of urban Japan during World War II, by David Fedman and Cary Karacas, was awarded the 2012 Best Paper Prize by the Journal of Historical Geography. This topic will be an exclusive one for the answers of CodyCross Second of two Japanese cities bombed during WWII, this game was developed by Fanatee Games a famous one known in puzzle games for ios and android devices.From now on, you will have all the hints, cheats, and needed answers to â¦ ww2dbaseThis article covers the conventional bombing of Japanese cities. 24 of them would arrive over the Japanese city just before midnight. Thanks in advance for your time. Night of 24-25 Feb: 174 B-29 bombers dropped incendiary bombs and destroyed about 3 square kilometer of the city, or about 28,000 buildings. They targeted industrial areas, but most of the bombs ended up exploding in the damp forest near Oyama and Mount Hiko. "They lowered their bombing altitude and loaded their B-29s with incendiary bombs, which they released with the hope the fire would grow and spread," he said. The ship fitting factory at the Mitsubishi shipyard was totally destroyed; several other industrial facilities nearby were also damaged. In addition to standard bombs, incendiary bombs were used with devastating effect against individual residences. ww2dbaseThe attack on these major cities caused as many as 500,000 Japanese deaths, while displacing as many as 5,000,000. ww2dbaseSources: The Pacific Campaign, Wikipedia. At two minutes past 11 oâclock in the morning on August 9, 1945, an atomic bomb exploded over the Japanese city of Nagasaki. The Americans launched the first of several 1,000-bomber raids against the Japanese home islands. 28 Jun: 29 B-29 bombers laid naval mines in three harbors including Kobe. The XX Air Force immediately took on the task of bombing Japanese naval and air bases from high altitude, though most of the early attacks achieved relatively little. In Jan 1945, American General Curtis LeMay took over the 20th and 21st Bomber Commands, merging them into the XX Air Force. 29 B-24 bombers of US 7th Air Force attacked Nagasaki, Japan in the morning, sinking ferry Kinko Maru, damaging the Kawanami Shipyard at Koyagishima, destroying 72 homes, and damaging 76 homes. While the United States began conventional bombing of Japan as early as 1942, the mission did not begin in earnest until mid-1944. Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department estimated 124,711 casualties and 286,358 destroyed buildings and homes. Bourne's dilemma'. The goal of this Lava's technical capabilities. 62 American B-29 bombers based in the Mariana Islands struck Tokyo, Japan. B-29 bombers of the US Army Far East Air Force aircraft attacked Kyushu, Japan from their bases in the Philippine Islands. Frustrated with the results of precision bombing, the US Air Forces turned to a technique that was pioneered by the Allies, especially the British Royal Air Force, over the skies of Germany. 32 US A-26 aircraft attacked Nagasaki, Japan between 1000 and 1200 hours, dropping 51 tons of bombs and 6 tons of fragmentation bombs. ww2dbaseYutaka Akabane, a senior level civil servant, observed that. Thank you. 458 American B-29 bombers attacked Osaka harbor, Japan in poor weather. Before Pearl Harbor, the Japanese had already began imperial expansion in China (1937) and in other territories and islands. Drawing from a wide range of documentary sources in US archives, the authors argue that maps provide an important and long-neglected means to trace the history of the incendiary bombing of Japan's cities. A 3-square mile area in Kobe, Japan or find this article or this... 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